Gender, Marital Status and Job Satisfaction an Empirical Study
Azim, Mohammad Tahlil, Haque, Mohammad Moinul, Chowdhury, Rashid Ahmed, International Review of Management and Business Research
This study attempts to identify the level of job satisfaction of employees in Bangladesh and to test whether job satisfaction level differs among employees in terms of their gender and marital status. Data are collected from 224 respondents. It is found that Bangladeshi employees, irrespective of gender and marital status, are 'moderately satisfied'. No statistically significant evidence is observed indicating differences in job satisfaction level between 'male' and 'female' or between 'married' and 'unmarried'.
Keywords: Gender, Marital Status, Job Satisfaction.
Specific employee attitude related to job satisfaction is of major interest in the field of organizational behavior and the practice of modern human resources management (Tett and Meyer 1993). The interest stemmed from the commonsense belief that the satisfied employees are more productive than those who are dissatisfied. It is also believed that satisfied employees are more committed to their job than their dissatisfied counterparts are (Robbins & Judge, 2011). Considering the gravity of the issue, a large number of studies have investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and various organizational variables. For example, several researchers have examined the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Agho et al., 1993). Other researchers have examined the link between satisfaction and performance (Lawler and Porter, 1969, Locke 1976), cohesion (Odom et. al. 1990), age and gender (Hulin and Smith 1964; Weaver 1974; Forgionne and Peeters 1982) gender, organizational level, and management practices (Bruke, 1995) and organizational climate (Argyris, 1973). However, most of these researches are based on the organizations and employees in developed countries. Negligible amount of studies were carried out in developing country context. But it is undeniable that the characteristics of individual employees and organizations in developed countries vary significantly from those of developing countries due to differences in economic realities, culture, norms, values and other concerns. Keeping this vacuum of study in mind, the present study is framed to investigate into the aspects of job satisfaction of employees in Bangladesh. The study is aimed to know (1) what is the mean level of job satisfaction in Bangladesh, and (2) whether, in Bangladesh, level of job satisfaction differs on the basis of difference in gender and marital status of the employees.
Job Satisfaction Defined
Job satisfaction has been widely studied over the last four decades of organizational research (Currivan, 1999; Lund 2003). It has been defined and measured both as a global construct and as a concept with multiple dimensions (Locke, 1969, 1976; Price 1997). Bullock (1952) defined job satisfaction as an attitude which results from a balancing and summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job. According to Smith (1955) it as an employee's judgment of how well his or her job has satisfied his various needs. Blum and Naylor (1968) defined it as a general attitude formed as a result of specific job factors, individual characteristics, and relationships outside the job. The most referred definition was given by Locke (1976) who viewed it as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience. Similar forms of definitions were given by Lofquist and Dewis (1969, p.53), Porter et al. (1975, p.53-54), Locke and Henne (1986, p.21). Robbins & Judge (2011) expressed it as an individual's general attitude towards his/her job.
The overall job satisfaction depends on what one expects and what he or she receives. An employee will remain satisfied with fewer amenities, provided he or she expects less. However, dissatisfaction occurs when one gets less than what he/she expects. Overall or general job satisfaction describes a person's overall affective reaction to the set of work and work-related factors (Cranny et al. …