Type-A Behavior, Gender, and Job Satisfaction: A Research on Instructors
Yazici, Hikmet, Altun, Fatma, Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri
There has been some research which investigates the relationship between gender, different personality traits, and job satisfaction in the field of behavioral sciences. The aim of this study is to examine the difference between male and female instructors' job satisfaction and to investigate the predict level of job satisfaction by Type-A personality traits and gender. 308 instructors (116 female and 192 male) with various titles worki ng at different universities participated in this study. The data were collected through Type-? Personality Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale, and Personal Data Form. Independent t-test, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression techniques were used to analyze the data. The findings showed that there was no significant difference between male and female instructors' scores on job satisfaction. Scores on moving away from social activities and importance attributed to timing that are sub-dimensions of Type-? Personality Scale, were significant predictors of job satisfaction. According to these results, whereas scores of moving away from social activities of participants increase, job satisfaction decreases. Additionally, scores of importance attributed to timing increases, as job satisfaction i ncreases. The findings of the study revealed that some personal characteristics explained the job satisfaction significantly.
University, Instructors, Type-? Behavior, Job Satisfaction, Gender, Job Stress.
Characteristics such as competitiveness, a strong sense of time urgency (Strickland, 2001, p. 652), impatience, ambitiousness, restlessness and aggressiveness are observed in Type-? behavior pattern (Friedman & Rosenman, 1974). Type-B individuals are calmer and they are not hasty. There are three main differences between Type-? and Type-B personalities: 1) Type-? people have higher level of competitiveness than Type-B individuals, 2) Type-? people race against time and think that time is very important and should not be waste. 3) Type-? individuals further react when faced with obstacle (Burger, 1993). Compared to other personality types, Type-? people showed higher level of hostile and aggressive tendencies (Masters, Lacaille, & Shearer, 2003), as well as they could be the source of aggression (Baron, Neuman, & Geddes, 1999; O'Connor, 2002).
There are significant differences between Type-A and Type-B behaviors in quality of performance, labor and psychosomatic symptoms (Jamal, 1985). It shows that there are significant correlations between personality types, work-related stress and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction that is observed negative or positive in vocational studies and defined as work-related well-being of a person, is a form of assessment on the state of ones job (Weiss, 2002). In recent studies including the last three decades, it has been detected meaningful relationships between work-oriented low control, high demands, low levels of psychological well-being, low job satisfaction, burnout and work-related psychological stress (Jamal, 1999; Van Der Doef & Maes, 1999). There are different variables that have an effect on job satisfaction. In this context, co-existence supportive colleagues (Cockburn & Haydn, 2004; Saygi, Tolon, & Tekogul, 2011) and the ability to manage their own behavior (Klusmann, Kunter, Trautwein, Lüdtke, & Baumert, 2008) were associated with job satisfaction. The similar studies have found that efficient classroom management and teaching strategies influenced teachers' job satisfaction positively, while the stress based on classroom experiences influenced job satisfaction of teachers negatively (Klassen & Chiu, 2010).
All of the variables associated with job satisfaction such as age, education level, health status, hours of work and the size of the institution were also associated with gender (Clark, 1997). Gender variable examined in this study has been researched as associated with job satisfaction in previous studies (eg. …