Language Differences or Learning Difficulties: The Work of the Multidisciplinary Team
Salend, Spencer J., Salinas, AltaGracia, Teaching Exceptional Children
The Work of the
Maria moved to the United States from Mexico and was placed in Ms. Shannon's fourth-- grade class where she sat quietly at her desk and kept to herself. Whenever directions were given, she seemed lost and later had difficulty completing tasks and participating in class discussions. During teacher-directed activities, Maria often either looked around to see what her classmates were doing and then mimicked them, or played with materials at her desk.
Ms. Shannon was concerned about Maria's lack of progress in developing English proficiency and her inability to pay attention and complete her work. Ms. Shannon thought Maria might have a learning disability and referred her to the multidisciplinary team to determine if she needed special education. The team organized the assessment process for Maria by considering the following questions:
* Who can assist the team in making decisions about Maria's educational program?
* What factors should the team consider in determining Maria's educational strengths and needs?
* What strategies should the team employ to assess Maria's educational strengths and needs?
* Should the team recommend a special education placement for Maria?
Educators often refer students like Maria for placement in special education (Ortiz, 1997). As Ortiz indicated, students learning a second language and students with learning disabilities often exhibit similar difficulties with learning, attention, social skills, and behavioral and emotional balance. As a result, multidisciplinary teams are increasingly working with educators like Ms. Shannon to conduct meaningful assessments and determine appropriate educational programs for a growing number of students whose primary language is not English.
Using the experiences of Maria and her teachers, this article provides recommendations for helping multidisciplinary teams accurately and fairly assess second-language learners and differentiate language differences from learning difficulties. The article includes six recommendations, as follows:
* Diversify the composition of the multidisciplinary teams and offer training.
* Compare student performance in both the native and secondary languages.
* Consider the processes and factors associated with second-language acquisition.
* Employ alternatives to traditional standardized testing.
* Identify diverse life experiences that may affect learning.
* Analyze the data and develop an appropriate educational plan.
These recommendations also can assist multidisciplinary teams in developing educational programs for secondlanguage learners and in complying with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which states that students should not be identified as having a disability if their eligibility and school related difficulties are based on their proficiency in English, or their lack of opportunity to receive instruction in reading or mathematics.
Diversify the Composition of the
Multidisciplinary Teams and Offer
IDEA requires that a multidisciplinary team of professionals and family members, with the student when appropriate, make important decisions concerning the education of students referred for special education. Initially, the team determines if students are in need of and eligible for special education services. When teachers refer second-language learners to the multidisciplinary team, the team frequently faces many challenges, such as differentiating linguistic and cultural differences from learning difficulties, and developing an appropriate educational program that addresses students' linguistic, cultural, and experiential backgrounds.
The composition and training of the multidisciplinary team are critical factors in determining the educational needs of second-language learners (Ochoa, Robles-Pina, Garcia, & Breunig 1999). …