Associations of Hypertension Status with Physical Fitness Variables in Korean Women

By Yoon, Jin-Ho; So, Wi-Young | Iranian Journal of Public Health, July 2013 | Go to article overview

Associations of Hypertension Status with Physical Fitness Variables in Korean Women


Yoon, Jin-Ho, So, Wi-Young, Iranian Journal of Public Health


Abstract

Background: In Korea, hypertension has become more prevalent with die Westernization of Korean diets and lack of exercise. This study aimed at investigating the associations between physical fitness variables and hypertension status in Korean women.

Methods: The subjects were 9,216 women aged >20 years who visited a public health promotion center for physical fitness tests. Cardiovascular respiratory fitness was evaluated using VC>2max, resting heart rate (RHR), double product (DP), and vital capacity and coordination-related physical fitness was measured using grip strength, number of sit-ups completed, sit-and-reach score, vertical jump height, number of side steps performed, and 1-leg standing with eyes

Results: The prevalence rates of prehypertension and hypertension were 30.3% and 12.9% in this study, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, drinking frequency, smoking intensity, and exercise intensity, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were calculated, and no statistically significant association was found between hypertension and physical fitness as measured by grip strength (Ρ = 0.056), number of sit-ups completed (Ρ = 0.140), and vertical jump height (Ρ = 0.121). However, significant associations were found between hypertension and VC>2max (Ρ < 0.001), RHR (Ρ < 0.001), DP (Ρ < 0.001), vital capacity (Ρ < 0.001), sit-and-reach score (Ρ = 0.012), the number of side steps performed (Ρ = 0.001), and 1-leg standing with eyes open (Ρ < 0.001).

Conclusion: We found that all the cardiovascular respiratory fitness variables and half of the motor- and coordination -related physical fitness variables were closely related with hypertension status.

Keywords: Hypertension, Cardiovascular respiratory fitness, Korea

Introduction

The number of hypertension cases in Korea has been recently increasing with the Westernization of Korean diets and lack of exercise. Data from the Korea Health Statistics 2011: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2) indicated that the rate of preva- lence of hypertension in women aged > 30 years was 27.8% (1).

Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is caused by ge- netic and lifestyle-related factors (2-3), which usu- ally promote stress and obesity. In addition, physi- cal fitness, as assessed by maximal exercise testing (quantifying the ability of the body to transport and use oxygen, V02max), is considered as an im- portant risk factor for hypertension and CVD (4-7) based on epidemiological evidence of its strong association with survival from hypertension due to CVD and non-CVD causes (4-9).

According to physical training principles, physical fitness is subdivided into 2 categories: cardiovas- cular respiratory fitness and motor- and coordina- tion-related physical fitness. Cardiovascular respir- atory fitness is measured by cardiorespiratory en- durance (V02max), resting heart rate (RHR), dou- ble product (DP), and vital capacity and coordina- tion-related physical fitness is measured by muscu- lar strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, power, agility, and the ability to maintain balance (10). Among numerous detailed physical fitness catego- ries, current researchers predominantly choose cardiorespiratory endurance (V02max) as a meas- ure of physical fitness level (11).

V02max is indubitably a standard criterion for assessing physical fitness (10, 12). However, sup- plementary research is needed to characterize the association between other physical fitness va- riables and hypertension status, which is crucial in establishing clinical principles in physical training. Therefore, using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study sought to confirm the associa- tions between the other physical fitness variables and hypertension status in Korean women.

Materials and Methods

Subjects

The subjects of this cross-sectional study were 9,216 women aged >20 years who visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, South Korea, during 2006-2010 to undergo cardiovascular res- piratory fitness and motor- and coordination- related physical fitness tests. …

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