Emerging Profiles of Female Marketing Managers in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Winning and Losing Competitive Laps in a Relay Race against Male Counterparts

By Safavi, Farrokh | International Journal of Marketing Studies, June 2013 | Go to article overview

Emerging Profiles of Female Marketing Managers in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Winning and Losing Competitive Laps in a Relay Race against Male Counterparts


Safavi, Farrokh, International Journal of Marketing Studies


Abstract

In Western economies the theories and paradigms of marketing management are developed on the basis of prevailing resources and environments with little, if any, consideration of the personal characteristics of the implementers. In many non-Western cultures, however, personalities of the implementers affect the design and execution of marketing strategies and tactics. This paper views the emerging roles of the young and inspiring female executives in shaping the marketing practices of the state-owned and private enterprises in the Islamic Republic of Iran. It examines the deep-rooted constraints that the female marketing managers have been subjected to at various stages of their employment process, including preparation, employment access, retention, and promotion to the position of marketing executives in organizations which have been traditionally governed by men. As the women have recently succeeded in occupying more university seats than their counterparts, a race has begun to capture key positions in the marketing organizations and break the glass ceiling in competition with their male counterparts. Using the metaphor of a relay race, the author has studied the performance of the Iranian women at each lap under the prevailing constraints and opportunities. A longitudinal study of Iranian women entering Tehran University during the period of 1999-2012, encompassing admission data, scientific preparation, job application, organizational culture, and external communications has been made in a series of field research. A model is developed to portray success and failure of the women at each lap (stage) of their marketing management functions.

Keywords: Iranian marketing managers, women marketing managers, gender-based competition for university admission

1. Introduction

1.1 Divergent Behavior in a Global Setting

In Western economies the theories and concepts of marketing management deal with adapting to the continuously evolving environment. The emotional side of the marketer is expected to be contained and excluded from the decision-making process. In a number of non-western cultures, including Iran, the personalities of marketing managers affect the choice of strategies. This can be influenced bycultural norms of the society, the absence of adequate information, and limited access to required resources. Accordingly, marketing concepts, theories, and strategies cannot be fully developed without the consideration of the individuals who implement them.

This paper examines a host of environmental factors that shape the mindset of the Iranian women as they undertake managerial responsibilities for marketing functions. The backbone of these environments are cultural and social norms, supported by laws and politics, challenged by the new waves from social media, and entangled in a bureaucracy which stifles genuine efforts for change. Without identifying these factors and their dynamics, it would be difficult to understand the risk aversion orientation which many female marketing managers have developed. Conformity with the organizational structure and culture has been deemed to be safe conduct. Those women who have challenged the validity or fairness of organizational norms have often encountered frustration and dismay. In some instances, however, the young women who were interviewed by the present author acknowledged the helpful assistance they received from a number of officials in finding solutions to their dilemma. Pursuant to a growing public assistance by the Islamic Republic, the Iranian Parliament recently increased the legal period for maternity leave to nine months, with two weeks of required leave for the husband as well (Official Gazette, 2013).

Initial studies for this paper were conducted in the period 1999-2009 and the findings were presented in a national conference in 2009 (Safavi, 2009). New developments that emerged during the period 2010-2012 were examined in a recent presentation (Safavi, 2012). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • A full archive of books and articles related to this one
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Emerging Profiles of Female Marketing Managers in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Winning and Losing Competitive Laps in a Relay Race against Male Counterparts
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.