Contributions to the Psychomotor Development of Children with Motor Disabilities from the Perspective of Their Social Integration through Adapted Physical Activities

By Aurora, Ungureanu | Journal of Physical Education and Sport, March 2013 | Go to article overview

Contributions to the Psychomotor Development of Children with Motor Disabilities from the Perspective of Their Social Integration through Adapted Physical Activities


Aurora, Ungureanu, Journal of Physical Education and Sport


Introduction

By motor disabilities we understand any kind of deviation from normal in the body's functioning and form, deviations that disturb the normal growth and development of the body, modifying its exterior aspect. [8] In children of preschool age, drivability and smooth rough as well as the coordination of sensory-motor skills, represent ways to understand their environment, but also to discover and become aware of their own body. With the help of motricity (coarser and fine) and the coordination of sensory-motor the preschoolers discovers the environment they live and awareness of their own body. [12]

The study of psychomotricity shows us those aspects that allow the child to make his own system of movements with the help of which he can act in any condition, on his own decisions, with efficiency, spontaneity and celerity. [1]

Integrated education refers to the inclusion of children with CES into public education...in order to offer a favourable environment to the harmonious and balanced development of their personality. [11]

Research has highlighted the fact that eyes, face and body movements are generally more revealing about the nature of emotions and feelings than verbal behaviour. [7]

A game is a physical or mental activity, spontaneous and for no particular purpose, generating fun, pleasure and refreshing. [5]

The attitude of society towards disabled people has changed with time and it was not favourable to them. This, and the fact that there had been little research into this area (adapted physical activities for 3 to 6/7 years old children with motor disabilities) until we began of our research (2006), was one of the reasons for choosing this subject.

In 2004, Mirela Dan and Vasile Marcu from Oradea started research from the hypothesis that a kinetic program made by a kinesiotherapist on children with special educational needs (9 institutionalized children aged 4-6, with low mental delay), may lead to motricity development and to widening these children's area of integration. One of the conclusions drawn confirms that game therapy programs for children with the objective of developing psychomotricity may contribute, together with other components, to the integration of children into normal schools. The age and social integration of these children are the same but disabilities and the programs used are different. [6]

Gabriela Ochiana, from the University of Bacau, carried out an experiment between February 2002 and December 2004, with a frequency of 4 sessions a week. As similar aspects, the ten subjects between 4 and 7 years old with psycho-neuro-motor disabilities, were observed but the author used ludotherapy for their recovery not for their social integration. [10]

In her doctoral thesis (2007), Caciulan Elena asserts as a conclusion the fact that: "the most important means of neuromotor recovery belongs to physical education, sports and kinetotherapy and it is represented by the physical exercise which, associated with other specific/nonspecific means, contributes to the social integration of the child". Even if it is about the social integration of the children with disabilities and the means is mutual, the adapted physical exercise, in the work mentioned, completes the other kinetotherapeutic methods for neuro-motor reeducation, in comparison with our research where it is used for the psychomotor development in the perspective of the social integration of children. [4]

From the research studied, previously mentioned, it can be seen that the subjects are the children that have very similar disabilities but for whom the movement games were applied for the kinetotherapeutic recovery as individuals, not a group as we did in our research. The innovation is the adapted programs, especially elaborated for the development of the psychomotor capacity and the social integration of these children.

The research consisted of three stages that we are going to present separately, later on. …

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