Global Citizenship Education and Its Implications for Curriculum Goals at the Age of Globalization
Zahabioun, Shahla, Yousefy, Alireza, Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H., Keshtiaray, Narges, International Education Studies
As the inevitable process of the 21st century, globalization has affected and altered all aspects of human life including education. Therefore, one of the main tasks of any education system is to identify the features and impacts of such process. Thus, the present study was conducted aiming to discuss and examine global citizenship education and its implications for curriculum goals. This study is firstly defining global citizenship education concept as well as its significance and necessity and then it is going to explain global citizenship education concept and its purposes and implications for curriculum goals. This is an analytical research. The results indicate that global citizen holds peculiar features and requires special education in global aspects. Accordingly, the citizenship education compatible with global standards requires an overview of curriculum goals as one of the most important components of education system.
Keywords: information technology, global citizenship, global citizenship education, globalization, curriculum
1.1 Introduce the Problem
Citizenship has been affected during its vicissitudinous history by different factors and has undergone many changes and upheavals and it has been altered from citizenship as city-state in ancient Greek era and nation-state during age of enlightenment and renaissance to a transnational and global concept. Thus, an interpretation of citizenship as joining a community and a special political realm which requires right and duties in a limited and mutual relationship with the government does not meet the current requirements of international community. Hence, a large section of literature on citizenship studies has been allocated to global citizenship issue.
Brigham identifies global citizenship as an "approach to understand, see and act". He states: global citizenship is A way of understanding - how the world works, links between our own lives and those of people throughout the world.
A way of seeing-social justice and equity, other people's reality, diversity, inter connectedness, and the way that people can make a difference.
A way of acting - exercising political rights, critical thinking, and challenging injustice (2011, 16).
Dower discusses how an interest in the idea of global citizenship has developed in the last thirty years because of four main factors, namely:
1) The increasing pressure of global problems requiring common solutions.
2) The general phenomenon of globalization.
3) Revived interest in the idea of citizenship itself.
4) A revived interest in the perennial approach of cosmopolitanism, often called nowadays the "global ethnic" (quoted by Chen, 2006).
Global citizenship meaningfully address questions of identity, religion, spirituality, ethnicity, culture, politics, economics, society and foreign relations in the twenty-first century (Dower and Williams quoted by Stewart, 2008, p: 6-7). In the other words, components such as identity, dependency, values, morality, culture, ethnicity and religion as well as concepts including rights, responsibility and contributions are challenged in their traditional meaning and are taken into consideration from a global perspective. This issue is resulted from extensive and unpredictable changes in the economic, political, social, scientific and technological aspects of global procedures which has generated strong motivation and tendency for fundamental and irreversible changes in the values, ethics and norms on one hand, and has confronted today's citizen with many challenges. Hence, the curriculum as a dynamic process must continually revise the goals. They should be organized so that they can come to an answer for the fluidity of the citizenship concept.
1.2 Importance of the Problem
We live in an increasingly interdependent world, where the actions of ordinary citizens are likely to have an impact on others' lives across the globe. …