The Analysis of L1 Teaching Programs in England, Canada, the USA and Australia regarding Media Literacy and Their Applicability to Turkish Language Teaching*

By Tüzel, Sait | Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, Autumn 2013 | Go to article overview

The Analysis of L1 Teaching Programs in England, Canada, the USA and Australia regarding Media Literacy and Their Applicability to Turkish Language Teaching*


Tüzel, Sait, Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri


Abstract

Two basic approaches namely "independent lesson approach" and "integration approach" appear in teaching media literacy. Media literacy is regarded as a separate lesson in the education program like mathematics and social sciences in "independent lesson approach". However, in "integration approach", activities and outcomes of media literacy are related in an existing course. It has been observed that by the 1990s, media devices and messages started to have a stronger impact on the life of a society which in turn resulted in adoption of integration approach in teaching media literacy by developed countries. Such countries specifically related media literacy specifically with teaching L1. In this study, the countries which were regarded as leaders in teaching media literacy namely England, Canada (the state of Ontario), USA, and Australia L1 teaching programs were taken into consideration in terms of relating L1 teaching with teaching media literacy; therefore, common themes were identified in their programs. A total number of 487 pages of document and 497 gains of L1 teaching programs of these countries were investigated by means of document investigation method. To analyse the data, content analysis was used. In this respect, the first analysis dealt with countries and further analysis identified the common themes of media literacy gains in L1 teaching programs. To analyse the data a qualitative data analysis program MAXQDA® was used. The results indicated that the investigated teaching programs involved media literacy gains and activities at an important level with the ratio of 37.2%. Approximately, two thirds of media literacy gains are related with "comprehension" component of media literacy whereas the rest deals with its "production" component. The component of "comprehension" includes the gains in four basic themes namely "understanding the genre of the text", "questioning the text", "identifying the information and ideas in the text", and "thinking the impact of media messages on the other people" in 21 sub-themes. The component of "production" includes the gains in four basic themes namely "forming content", "using methodological information in production", "common production and interaction", "evaluating the own product of message" in 14 sub-themes.

Key Words

Australia, Canada, England, L1 Teaching Programs, Teaching Media Literacy, Turkish Language Teaching, United States of America.

There are several studies in international literature about how media literacy can be included within educational systems (Considine, 1990; Duncan, 1989; Kahn & Master, 1992; Melamed, 1989; Scharrer, 2003; Tuggle, Sneed, & Wulfmeyer, 1999). Based on these studies and applications of the countries, it is possible to state that there are two types of application in this connection as (i) independent course approach and (ii) integration approach with a current course curriculum.

Independent Course Approach

As the name of approach refers, it means integrating media literacy into the educational system as a separate course (Semali, 2000). It defends that integrating the applications oriented to media literacy education into the educational system as a separate course is necessary as same with mathematics, science, and music courses (Hobbs, 1998, p. 25; Kress, 1992, p. 200). As we look at the media literacy education model applied in Turkey, it is seen that independent course approach has been adopted. This course, called as "Media Literacy", is elective and takes two hours per week (Altun, 2008; Radyo Televizyon Üst Kurumu [RTÜK], 2007).

Integration Approach

The other approach to position media literacy within educational systems is to integrate gains and activities of media literacy education within current definite courses in the education system. This approach have the risk to perform media text analysis and production activities superficially, but have the potential to introduce all students in the level of basic education with media criticism and production activities at the same time (Altun, 2005; Erstad, 1997; Richards, 1992). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Analysis of L1 Teaching Programs in England, Canada, the USA and Australia regarding Media Literacy and Their Applicability to Turkish Language Teaching*
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.