Managing Learners' Behaviours in Classroom through Negative Reinforcement Approaches
Wahab, Jamalullail Abdul, Mansor, Azlin Norhaini, Awang, Mohd Mahzan, Ayob, Norazlina Mohamad, Asian Social Science
The present study aims to identify the types and levels of disruptive behaviours among students in classroom and the levels of negative reinforcement approaches practiced by teachers in managing and tackling these disruptive behaviours. A total of 119 teachers from four national secondary schools in Zone A, Miri, Sarawak were selected. Questionnaire was used to collect data and the data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics (one-way ANOVA). The research findings indicated that; (a) absenteeism especially entering classes late, and (b) defiance in classroom in which the learners refuse to join any social game activities conducted in classroom were among the highest disruptive behaviours displayed by the learners in classroom at the national secondary schools. The result of the present study also indicated the practice of negative reinforcement approach in the form of warning was higher than other forms of approaches (scolding and punishment). There was a significant difference with regard to the practice of negative reinforcement approach based on the teachers' years of teaching experience. Implications of the current study towards teaching practice and educational policy are also discussed.
Keywords: managing, learners' behaviours, negative reinforcement, discipline
A good management of students' discipline in classroom may ensure an effective teaching and learning process in classroom. With a minimum number of students per class is 25 to 50 for 40 minutes or 80 minutes lesson, teachers nowadays are undoubtedly facing various challenges pertaining to students' attitudes and behaviours. Therefore, teachers' efficiency and wisdom in managing discipline in classroom is imperative to create a conducive learning environment that enhances the teaching and learning process. The main purpose of emphasising good discipline management in classroom is to facilitate students to fully utilise the teaching aids, learning materials as well as their peers in an organised way (Miller, 2006; Thornberg, 2009). In other words, good classroom management strategy contributes to assist students in developing their skills apart from it brings great impact in the long run (Rohaty et al., 1991; Leung & Lam, 2003; Morrison, 2009). Teachers play a significant role in managing the discipline in classroom. Teachers that possess skills in managing discipline in classroom are capable in handling students' emotions and behaviours to ensure that they are able to participate in the teaching and learning process actively and consequently achieve the objectives of teaching and learning in classroom (Cameron, 1998; Charles, 2005; Morrison, 2009). Thus, this study examines discipline management in classroom from the aspect of the types of disruptive behaviours among students in classroom, the practice of teachers' negative reinforcement approach in managing and tackling these disruptive behaviours in classroom as well as to identify if there is any significant difference of various negative reinforcement approaches practiced by teachers (warning, scolding and punishment) on students that display disruptive behaviours based on the teachers' years of teaching experience (between junior and senior teachers).
2. Problem Statement
A conducive classroom milieu is very crucial in teaching and learning process. Good management of students' discipline in classroom by teachers will ensure a smooth and effective flow of the teaching and learning (Charles, 2005; Morrison, 2009). On the other hand, ineffective management of students' discipline in classroom may disrupt the lesson planned by teachers. Thus, teachers' skills and knowledge in dealing with disciplinary problems in classroom should be constantly enhanced. In other words, effective management of students' discipline in classroom is tremendously influenced by the teachers' efficiency in teaching, in dealing with the students as well as in managing the facilities available and physical state of the classroom (Mok, 2004; Morrison, 2009). …