Alcohol Intoxication in Drivers in Road Traffic Accidents and Violations

By Palijan, Tija Zarkovic; Sarilar, Marijana et al. | Alcoholism and Psychiatry Research, May 1, 2013 | Go to article overview

Alcohol Intoxication in Drivers in Road Traffic Accidents and Violations


Palijan, Tija Zarkovic, Sarilar, Marijana, Kovacevic, Drazen, Kovac, Marina, Alcoholism and Psychiatry Research


INTRODUCTION

Road traffic injuries have become a global developmental and health issue. The likelihood of accidents in general and accidents with fatal outcomes may depend on a large number of factors. Some among these are the condition of roads, the number of vehicles on the roads, population size, population density, economic situation,1"2 the percentage of young drivers3 in traffic, while some relate to the characteristics of the drivers and the manner of driving. Thus, the researchers found out that the economic growth results in the increase of the number of registered vehicles,1"2 i e. vehicles that are in use and consequently in a larger number of road accidents. With regard to road accidents with fatal outcome, some authors observed their decrease and others increase2 linked to the economic growth. Bener and Crundall4 conclude that the number of accidents with fatal outcome decreases with the growth of the number of vehicle owners. They associate it with the lower number of accidents involving pedestrians besides vehicles, which are more fatal than accidents involving only vehicles. These authors associate the reduction of accidents with fatal outcome with the growth of gross domestic product. The number of accidents with fatal outcome is also dependent on the quality of health care. Thus, the number of these accidents increases as the ratio of the number of people per doctor and the number of people per hospital bed rises.4

The manner and frequency of driving are also important factors that influence the risk of accidents. A somewhat disheartening discovery comes from Nishida5 who found that the more offences and involvement in accidents a person has had, the greater is the likelihood of their involvement in further accidents. The influence of previous experience of accidents on reducing the likelihood of future involvement in them is recorded in older drivers, ages 55-64, only.

Certainly, one of the essential characteristics of the driver affecting the probability of traffic accidents is alcohol intoxication while driving. The number of traffic accidents committed under the influence of alcohol may depend on the preferences of alcohol consumption in the population and its groups, preferences of drunken driving and drinking patterns that may be culturally determined. Skog6 found a positive correlation between the amount of alcohol consumed (measured in litres of pure alcohol per capita) and the number of traffic accidents in central and southern Europe, but not including Northern Europe. The authors explain this by difference in patterns of drinking, drinking preferences to different levels of intoxication and social standards regarding acceptable drinking situations. Propensity to alcohol consumption and drunk driving are subject to socio-economic characteristics of an individual. A Finnish study showed that less educated people with lower income, living alone or divorced are more prone to driving while drunk.7 In addition to socio-economic ones, the prevalence of alcohol consumption and drunk driving may be affected by the following factors: the price of alcoholic drinks, expected legal costs/penalties associated with violations due to drunk driving, legal drinking age, closing hours of facilities allowed to dispense drinks3 etc.

Young drunken drivers are, according to previous studies, a particularly high-risk group for causing traffic accidents. Young drivers under the same concentration of alcohol as adults have a higher risk for accidents involving casualties.8 Lower concentrations of alcohol in youths lead to more negative effects than in adults due to the synergy of driving inexperience, greater tendency toward risk and inexperience with alcohol.9 Young people are more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and their skills to avoid accidents are more damaged than those of adults with the same alcohol concentrations.9

In this paper, we present the analysis of trends in a time period ( 1999-2012), i. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Alcohol Intoxication in Drivers in Road Traffic Accidents and Violations
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.