Creative Thinking Development Program for Learning Activity Management of Secondary School Teachers
Pukdeewut, Sutinan, Chantarasombat, Chalard, Satapornwong, Pattananusorn, International Education Studies
The objectives of this research were: to design a creative thinking development program for learning activity management of secondary school teachers, and to study the program's efficiency and effectiveness of usage. The results of the study were as follows: the program includes the vision, principles, objectives, content, program development process, evaluation of performance and effectiveness. The process development had 5 stages and 8 activities of construction. The efficiency of the development program in learning activity management of secondary school teachers by 82.15/80.81 was an established requirement. The findings indicated that the teachers attained knowledge, skill and attitude towards creative learning activity management after using the program at a higher than before using the program at .05 significant level.
Keywords: creative thinking development, creativity in learning, learning activity management
After the National Education Act 1999, and the Revised Issue (the Second Issue) 2002 were announced, the Ministry of Education of Thailand concluded the overall Educational Reform in the first decade. There were many emergent problems to be solved concerning students' quality, teachers, faculty members, educational staff, efficiency of administration and management, students with low achievement and without desirable characteristics in analytical thinking and interest in studies. It was also found that the people with major role in promoting learning to achieve its goal based on guidelines for Educational Reform were largely the teachers, since they had to use the curriculum with their students.(The Office of Educational Accreditation and Quality Assessment, 2007). According to the supervisory report, follow up, and evaluation of educational management, it was found that most teachers didn't adjust their teaching methods. They lacked self leadership, and self confidence for learning management. They were not courageous about making decisions in using new techniques. They lacked self-confidence and creativity in learning management in their class, especially in secondary schools of Thailand.
However, the creative learning activity management would occur efficiently and effectively, when the major factor was the teachers' competency in efficient instructional management through learning by doing in real context, and direct experience which would lead to sharing as well as improving individuals and student group knowledge level (Chantarasombat, 2007). It was necessary to improve teacher development by encouraging development of skill for learning activity management as well as creative thinking for design of learning activities appropriate for the students.
Many scholars (Kersensteiners, 1925; Hibnere, 1998; Lubart & Georgsdottir, 2004) note that great influence, by stimulating and developing the students' creative activity, can be exerted by a lecturer's personality and the quality of teaching. In his article about Singapore's creative education, Tan indicates the responsibility of teachers:
"Teachers must acquire pedagogical competence (e.g., planning lessons, selecting suitable teaching models and managing behaviors). They should process sufficient content knowledge and skills and must be interested in teaching effectively and creatively. In addition, they should also acquire creative skills and techniques, as well as cultivate dispositions related to fostering creativity (Tan, 2004)."
The development of creative activity of teachers taps into teachers' interests, prior knowledge, learning styles, strategies in an attempt to nurture knowledge construction, perseverance, intrinsic motivation and stages of creative process.
Regarding stages of creative process, many scientists (Groborz & Necka, 2003; Lubart, 2000-2001; Mace & Ward, 2002; Norlander, 2000-2001; Sawyer, 2006; Slahova & Cacka, 2009) have distinguished four stages of the creative activity:
(1) Preparation is the initial phase of preliminary work: collecting data and information, searching for related ideas, listening to suggestions. …