Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Cross-Sectional Study

By Shahrabi, Narges Salehi; Pourezzat, Aliasghar et al. | Iranian Journal of Public Health, November 2013 | Go to article overview

Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Cross-Sectional Study


Shahrabi, Narges Salehi, Pourezzat, Aliasghar, Mobaraki, Hossein, Mafimoradi, Shiva, Iranian Journal of Public Health


Abstract

Background: The centralization of human activities is associated with different pollutants which enter into environment easily and cause the urban environment more vulnerable. Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for Tehran metropolis, many plans and regulations have been developed. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study was to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis.

Methods: A Qualitative content analysis in addition to a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professional were used to identify 1) key sources of Tehran's air pollution, 2) recognize challenges towards effective performance of pertinent plans and 3), offer effective solutions.

Results: Related challenges to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories including lack of integrated and organized stewardship and PEST challenges.

Conclusion: For controlling the air pollution of Tehran effectively, various controlling alternatives were identified as systematization of plan preparation process, standardization and utilization of new technologies & experts, infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination mechanisms, improving citizens' participatory capacity and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy.

Controlling air pollution in Tehran needs a serious attention of policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders.

Keywords: Mr pollution management, Pollutants, Control plan

Introduction

Pollution is predicated to all tiny particles in the air which are produced due to human or natural activities (1). Since the centralization of human activities is associated with metabolic human in- teractions in urban areas, different pollutants enter into air easily and cause the urban environment more vulnerable (2). It is such that, World Health Organization (1992), has addressed the air pollu- tion as a serious problem (3).

Improper use of fuel and inappropriate topogra- phy of Tehran caused air pollution due to the en- trance of approximately 1.5 million tons of pollu- tants annually. Hence, the combination of natural and artificial factors causes Tehran to be one of the most polluted cities in the world, standing by Mexico City, Beijing, Cairo, Sao Paulo, Shanghai, Jakarta, and Bangkok (4). Air pollution has also caused painful events all around the world: the pollution event in Meuse (1930), in which 63 peo- ple experienced respiratory problems; or the death of more than 400 people in London due to the contaminated thick smog in 1952 are two exam- ples of such irrecoverable events (1). Accor-ding to an environmental program of United Nations 4-8 % of premature deatlas are due to exposure to particulate matter in both outdoor and indoor en- vironments, with potentially 500000 excess deatlas annually due to particulate matter in outdoor situ- ations (5). Likewise, the Air Quality Control Agency's report indicates that more than 4500 people are dying every year in Tehran due to air pollution (6).

The most important sources of air pollution can be divided into four key groups including over- crowding (7), economic growth (8), natural factors (exp: geographical situation and topography, tem- perature inversion etc.) (9), and mobile and sta- tionary sources (exp. Non-standards and poor fuel consumption of motor vehicles, industries in and around the city, home heating and cooling sys- tems) (1, 10).

Depending on the type and sources of pollutants, metropolises around the world took different measures to control the air pollution. Among de- veloping countries, South Africa has benefited from a collection of best legal solutions in order to reduce the air pollution; among them are objec- tive and standard setting, status quo assessment and priority area delineation, control strategy preparation and implementation (11). …

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