The Religious and Spiritual Dimensions of Cutting Down and Stopping Cocaine Use: A Qualitative Exploration among African Americans in the South

By Cheney, Ann M.; Curran, Geoffrey M. et al. | Journal of Drug Issues, January 2014 | Go to article overview

The Religious and Spiritual Dimensions of Cutting Down and Stopping Cocaine Use: A Qualitative Exploration among African Americans in the South


Cheney, Ann M., Curran, Geoffrey M., Booth, Brenda M., Sullivan, Steve D., Stewart, Katharine E., Borders, Tyrone F., Journal of Drug Issues


Introduction

Since the mid-1980s, when crack cocaine emerged as a major problem in the United States (Agar, 2003), social scientists and those in allied fields tended to focus on the experiences of crack- cocaine users living in poor, urban neighborhoods (Page & Singer, 2010). It was not until the early 2000s that researchers shifted their focus from crack-cocaine use in urban areas to cocaine use in small towns and rural communities (Draus & Carlson, 2007; Draus, Siegal, Carlson, Falck, & Wang, 2005). In recent years, studies have reported on the increased availability of cocaine in rural areas of the Southern United States (Borders et al., 2008; Booth, Leukefeld, Falck, Wang, & Carlson, 2006) where multiple barriers impede access to formal treatment services (Sexton, Carlson, Leukefeld, & Booth, 2008). Within these contexts, research has found that African Americans tend to draw on their religious beliefs and practices (Brown, 2006) and seek informal help from clergy (Sexton, Carlson, Siegal, Leukefeld, & Booth, 2006) to overcome the lack of available treatment services and stigmas associated with drug use and treatment seeking. While these studies illustrate that religion and spirituality influence African Americans' substance-use experiences, treatment seeking behaviors, and beliefs about long-term recovery, prior research has examined only the experiences of those in rural areas of the South (i.e., Brown, 2006; Sexton et al., 2006). Nationally, African Americans residing in rural areas have higher rates of unem- ployment, poverty, not having a high school degree, and a lack of health insurance coverage rela- tive to African Americans in urban areas (Glover, Moore, Probst, & Samuels, 2004). Within Southern United States, rural residents regardless of race face worse access to mental health services generally than their urban counterparts (Fox, Merwin, & Blank, 1995). Because of their more limited personal financial and health care resources, it is possible that more rural African American cocaine users in the South turn to religion and spirituality to cut down their use of substances than their urban counterparts. To date, there are no published studies comparing the cocaine-use experiences of African Americans in rural and urban areas in the South.

Religion and spirituality play central roles in the lives of many African Americans (Mattis & Jagers, 2001), and God and prayer are important aspects of daily life as are membership in church and church attendance (Pattillo-McCoy, 1998). Research has shown that African Americans in the South exhibit higher rates of participation in organized and nonorganized religious activities compared with African Americans in other regions of the United States (Chatters, Taylor, & Lincoln, 1999). In addition, African Americans in rural settings tend to be more involved in orga- nized religious activities (Levin, Taylor, & Chatters, 1995) and attend church services more fre- quently (Taylor, 1988) than African Americans in urban areas. Regional differences are rooted in longstanding social-cultural, economic, political, and historical factors such as residential segre- gation and migration patterns that condition religious expression in diverse social contexts (Lincoln & Mamiya, 1990).

In the South, the Black church has historically provided African Americans with spiritual, emotional, and social support, playing a pivotal role in the lives of those living in oppressive social, political, and economic conditions (Taylor, Chatters, & Levin, 2004). In addition, the Black church has historically provided African Americans with social opportunities within rural Southern Black communities where there is a lack of secular pathways to achieve status and leadership. Unlike in urban areas, especially in the North where there are other options to achieve status and sources of support, norms and expectations regarding church participation have influ- enced the continued centrality of the church in the lives of African Americans in the South (Ellison & Sherkat, 1995). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

The Religious and Spiritual Dimensions of Cutting Down and Stopping Cocaine Use: A Qualitative Exploration among African Americans in the South
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.