A Model for Short Message Service Advertising Avoidance Determinants - an Iranian Experience

By Azizi, Shahriar | Management & Marketing, October 1, 2013 | Go to article overview

A Model for Short Message Service Advertising Avoidance Determinants - an Iranian Experience


Azizi, Shahriar, Management & Marketing


Abstract. Short Message Service (SMS) advertising is a growing phenomenon in the Iranian marketing industry. Many Iranian companies are intensively interested in SMS advertising for its low cost and comprehensive coverage. The vital challenge in using SMS as an advertising medium is mobile avoidance. In this research, a conceptual model containing six hypotheses was developed and tested. Using 211 self-reporting questionnaires and structural equation modeling (SEM), this study found that self-esteem and cynicism play a key role in SMS advertising skepticism (β = 0.29; p<0.05 and β = 0.33; p < 0.05, respectively). Positive subjective norms also impact SMS advertising skepticism negatively (β = -0.13; p<0.1). SMS advertising skepticism impacts SMS advertising avoidance positively (β = 0.85; p<0.01). Moreover, the current study demonstrated that cynicism had no significant impact on SMS advertising avoidance. Effects decomposition also revealed that SMS advertising skepticism had the largest effect on the SMS advertising avoidance. As a personal trait, cynicism is a negative attitude toward believability of others' motivations and behaviors while advertising skepticism is a media-specific construct. To decrease the SMS avoidance, marketers need to decrease skepticism about SMS. They may use permission-based advertising and traditional advertising simultaneously.

Keywords: short message service, avoidance, cynicism, skepticism, self-esteem, subjective norm, mobile marketing.

1. Introduction

Among the wide variety of promotional instruments available nowadays, advertising is still the most popular in countries around the globe, and marketing specialists are constantly seeking for the next instrument that will deliver their advertising messages faster and better to customers. One of such new effective, low cost and wide coverage advertising media is the cell phone and its short message service (SMS). In the light of the fast development of wireless networking technology and significant increase of mobile device users, wireless advertising is becoming a hot topic (Yunos et al., 2003). A survey of 50 global brand-name companies commissioned by Airwide Solutions indicated that cell phones are used by over 3.1 billion people globally and 40% of major brands have deployed text messaging (SMS) campaigns (airwidesolutions.com, 2007). This study also revealed that more brands were looking to spend a greater proportion of their marketing budget on mobile campaign in the near future with 71% of brands projecting to spend up to 10% of their budget on mobile marketing within two years. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) reported that at the end of 2012 there were 6.8 billion mobile subscriptions that was equivalent to 96 percent of world population. The global mobile advertising market would be valued at over $16 billion by 2011 (M:Metrics, 2007). There is a growing orientation toward SMS. For example, StrongMail's 2012 survey revealed that 42.8 percent of the companies surveyed said they would increase their mobile marketing budget for 2013. And even if today's mobile users have at their disposal content-rich data services, they still prefer the short message, with 65 percent of mobile users from Asia Pacific sending SMS everyday (Forbes, 2006).

Although, approximately 90% of current SMS volume is still person-to-person message (Kavassalis et al., 2003), SMS advertising shows a constant growth. Although, there are good reasons for considering mobile and SMS channels as a powerful vehicle for a marketing campaign, consumer acceptance and response still need more investigation (Becker, 2005). Prior studies indicated that SMS advertising was effective both as a brand vehicle and in stimulating consumer response (Rettie et al., 2005).

Recently, mobile owner trends in Iran showed a high growth. Now, there are two operators in mobile market in Iran, including Irancell and Hamrah-e-Aval. Short message is a growing advertising media in Iran especially for clothing and ISP companies. …

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