School Leadership and Organizational Justice: A Meta-Analysis with Turkey Representative Sample

By Çogaltay, Nazim; Karadag, Engin et al. | International Journal of Education, January 1, 2014 | Go to article overview

School Leadership and Organizational Justice: A Meta-Analysis with Turkey Representative Sample


Çogaltay, Nazim, Karadag, Engin, Bektas, Fatih, International Journal of Education


Abstract

Purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between school leadership and organizational justice using meta-analysis. By combining nine independent researches, a sample of 4303 respondents has been obtained, which represent overall Turkey. The results of the analysis, which were conducted using random effects model, showed that school leadership is strongly correlated with organizational justice. It was found that ethical leadership is the style with the biggest effect among the leadership styles covered in the study. Considering how effective the school leadership on the organizational justice is, it has been recommended to investigate the effect of leadership on the other components of the school as well.

Keywords: leadership, organizational justice, schools leadership, meta-analysis

1. Introduction

Leadership is approached at a variety of different perspectives in terms of institutions and organizations, and it is a very popular research subject in the field of education (Krüger & Scheerens, 2012). Leadership is associated with schools and administrators in educational studies. In this case, school administrators are expected to guide all employees and students, support them, undertake all responsibility, and are an inspiration in order to meet the objectives of the school. Furthermore, the school administrators pave the way for curriculum reform and developing a positive learning environment (Cotton, 2003; Hallinger, 2005; Huber, 2004; Nichols, 2011).

The studies on school leaders accelerated with the Effective School Act in the 1970's. Research done in England and Northern America determined student success in certain schools to be greater compared to other schools. The researchers argued that this situation cannot be explained just by the unique individual and social characteristics of the students, but that the real difference between the schools was due to the leadership behaviors of the school administrators. Hence, school leadership began to be discussed more frequently in educational studies because of this finding (Bamburg & Andrews, 1991; Krüger & Scheerens, 2012; Ross & Gray, 2006).

The school leader is the person who plans and maintains program development, allocates resources, improves the performances of employees and students by encouraging them, and who guides them in order to meet the objectives of the school. Upon determining the objectives of the school, school leaders ensure that these objectives are stated and agreed upon with the students, teachers, and school environment. Furthermore, these leaders manage the out of school activities as well. They direct the employee and student activities in other areas of the school, encourage local organizations to work with with the school, and also collaborate with families and business organizations (Busher, Harris & Wise, 2000). In conclusion, school leaders undertake the main responsibility of ensuring that the student success is at its maximum potential. It can be said that the concept of justice is one of the most important components of this responsibility.

In this context, the concept of organizational justice was complimented by social scientists and therefore it is one of many concepts that are the subject of scientific researches. Organizational justice can be expressed as the perception of justice, developed by the employees, about the situations arising from to the behaviors of the organization or its employees, either individually or as a group (James, 1991; Tastan & Yilmaz, 2008). In addition, it can be seen that organizational justice has an impact on many organizational factors, from the attitude of the employees to their performance (Konovsky, 2000; Yilmaz & Tastan, 2009). Greenberg' (1987, 1990) thus, organizational justice is a concept concerning the perception of how fairly the employees are treated in an organization and the impact of this perception on the factors such as employees' commitment to the organization, organizational trust. …

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