Analysis and Examination of the Relationship between Leisure Motivation and Academic Motivation of Students of Schools of Physical Education and Sports

By Fehmi, Çalik; Mahmut, Gülle et al. | Journal of Physical Education and Sport, March 2014 | Go to article overview

Analysis and Examination of the Relationship between Leisure Motivation and Academic Motivation of Students of Schools of Physical Education and Sports


Fehmi, Çalik, Mahmut, Gülle, Kürsad, Sertbas, Ihsan, Sari, Erdi, Kaya, Journal of Physical Education and Sport


Introduction

The concept of leisure is defined as a time period when human being participates in social, cultural and sports activities that s/he enjoys doing and compatible with his/her safe and gains a social personality by interacting with other people (Bucher, 1974). Torkildsen (1992) defines leisure as a complement of activities which arises as a result of physical and spiritual needs of a person and done by a person to meet these needs. If recreation is a need, then Maslow's hierarchy of needs may be considered to be a part of the whole. Leisure points out the following concepts because it has always been associated with them: Leisure satisfaction (Brown & Frankel, 1993, Huang & Carleton, 2003), serious leisure ( Heo & Lee, 2010), leisure satisfaction (Nimrod, 2007), leisure participation (Huang & Carleton, 2003, Poulsen et. al., 2006., Sener et. al., 2007), perceived freedom in leisure ( Poulsen et. al. 2008), leisure behavior motivation (Guinn, 1999). It has been known that leisure activities that have an individually and socially important place, also have an important place in improving life quality as well as overcoming physical and psychological problems (Hamer et. al. 2002). However, a significant portion of society seems not to be informed about leisure activities and at a sufficient level and they seem not to participate in leisure activities (Karaküçük & Gürbüz, 2007; Rhodes & Dean 2009; Tsai, 2005). However, Torkildsen expresses that leisure education has an important place in functioning of educational process (Torkildsen, 1992). The concept of recreation must be canalized to students as a part of education during the educational process and formed and shaped to contribute to leisure motivation of students in academic productivity and the place and position of the recreation must be determined according to this situation (Means, 1973).

Motivation emerges the result of spiritual and contextual variables (Bandura, 1997; Pintrich & Schunk, 1996) as a result of complex dynamics of individual differences. Motivation is usually defined as being an inherent behaviour and an intrinsic motivation which diectly activates the individual (Woolfolk, 2004). Achievement motivation is a modern study that had been emerged by the studies of David McClelland. McClelland et. al., defined the achievement motivation as a rewarding for people under appropriate conditions as a result of their studies conducted on the concepts of success and motivation (McClelland, 1961; McClelland and Winter, 1969). Weiner (1986) presents and offers the achievement motivation as the most ambitious attribution theory of emotions. This theory is concerned in features of causal thinking that is perceived with the reasons of success and failure and the subsequent emotional experiences. Another important progress theory of the motivational research is goal orientation theory. The basic reference point of achievement goal orientation theory (Elliot and McGregor, 2001) is expressed as students to determine their academic orientation in accordance with their various personal goals. Various situations influence academic orientation of students. Socio-economic variables such as status, gender, sufficiency in family education and ethnicity (Casanova et al., 2005; Gayle., 2005; Chee,et al., 2005; Sulaiman, and Mohezar 2006; Whittingham 2006) are accepted as demographic variables but adaptation to school and teacher emerges as an another factor (Mouton and Hawkins, 1996). Some factors such as high school grade point average, school satisfaction and class rank that are some traditional variables related to academic performance (Brookshire, and. Palocsay, 2005; Gayles 2004; Richter, 2006 ;Schniederjans, and Kim 2005; Yousef, 2009) also draws attention. The relations between academic achievement and academic self-concept seem to be strong outside of these variables (Chowdhury & Pati, 1997; Collins, Hanges & Locke,2004; Wang and Lin, 2008) and achievement motivation and the concept of safe seem to affect academic achievement directly or indirectly according to the findings of many studies (Tella, 2007; Broussard, 2002; Abouserie, 1995. …

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