Nurturing Entrepreneurship: Reconsideration for Competitive Strategy

By Carland, James W; Carland, JoAnn C et al. | Advances in Competitiveness Research, January 1, 1997 | Go to article overview

Nurturing Entrepreneurship: Reconsideration for Competitive Strategy


Carland, James W, Carland, JoAnn C, Busbin, James W, Advances in Competitiveness Research


INTRODUCTION

The United States for many decades reigned as a world leader in productivity and gross national product. However, beginning the 1960s other nations have grown in economic strength. As a result, the United States has a gross domestic output per capita which is third in the world behind Japan and Germany (Ali, Chaubey & Camp, 1995) althoLgh America still leads in a number of key industries; for example, in terms of market share of high-tech manufacturing, the U.S. leads the world in six of eight industries (Keilany & Helms, 1995). Yet, despite recent gains, articles appear which decry the decline of American competitiveness (Hayajneh, Udeh & Kedia, 1994). For the purposes of this paper, competitiveness will be defined as the rate of growth (or decline) in world markets foi manufactured goods. Using this definition, at the least, it is apparent that the U.S. is no longer number one in all areas.

What reasoning is offered to explain America's competitive position in international markets? These reasons are varied; for example some scholars refer to the need for American firms to adapt to change in order to maintain competitiveness (Enen, 1993). Other scholars examine antiquated antitrust legislation (Harvey, Lusch & Cavarkapa, 1995), or the need to revitalize manufacturing strategy development (Helms, 1994), or effect patent and intellectual property protection (Erickson, 1994), or to address internal organization and infrastructure of industries (Marshall, 1993), or to address quality (Hayajneh, Udeh & Kedia, 1994), or in the need to transport marketing management practices into high-tech settings (Busbin & Pearce, 1993), just to name a few. Others see the road to improvement in more human terms. These include scholars who see the route to enhancing competitiveness by focusing on human capital (Moon & Peery, 1995), constantly innovating (Peters & Austin, 1985), hiring innovative managers (Katsioloudes & Balsmeier, 1995) or focussing on corporate entrepreneurship (Wilhelm & Trevino, 1994).

Krugman (1994) said that nations do not compete with each other, rather competition is at the firm level, and there is strong support for this view (Puri, 1994; Suchon, 1994; Hinchey, 1994). Since Schumpeter (1934), many scholars have stressed entrepreneurship as a key part of a firm's performance; some have even described it as essential fwr continuing competitiveness (Wilhelm & Trevino, 1994).

The Phoenicians may have invented entrepreneurship, but Americans perfected the art; in fact, the nation was founded by entrepreneurs (Carland & Carland, 1990). From the days of the Yankee Clipper Ships in the nation's infancy taking trade throughout the world, to the modern dominance of technology development, America has been personified by entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs no longer mean small businesses. In fact, a new term, intrapreneurship, is frequently employed to describe corporate entrepreneurship (Pinchot, 1985), and, increasingly, we talk about entrepreneurial activities at the corporate level (Wilhelm & Trevino, 1994). Further, we know that the U.S. is still ranked number one in entrepreneurship in the world (Dunning & Holmes, 1993). Central to this work is the belief that entrepreneurial thinking contributes to America's competitive success. Thus, an extension of this logic raises the question, How can entrepreneurship be nurtured? This paper introduces and examines the premise that entrepreneurs think differently from others, and that understanding this difference allows an organization to better nurture entrepreneurship for competitive benefit.

Yeats (1952), the celebrated poet, asked, How can we know the dancer from the dance? Gartner (1988) used that analogy to describe why it is not important to study individual entrepreneurs. Carland, Hoy and Carland (1988) interpreted it differently, suggesting that one can never understand the dance without understanding the dancer. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Nurturing Entrepreneurship: Reconsideration for Competitive Strategy
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.