School Community Engaging with Immigrant Youth: Incorporating Personal/Social Development and Ethnic Identity Development

By Gonzalez, Laura M.; Eades, Mark P. et al. | School Community Journal, Spring 2014 | Go to article overview

School Community Engaging with Immigrant Youth: Incorporating Personal/Social Development and Ethnic Identity Development


Gonzalez, Laura M., Eades, Mark P., Supple, Andrew J., School Community Journal


Introduction

School staff members in all areas of the U.S. are now more likely to work with students from immigrant families. There were 13,716,000 children (age 17 and under) of immigrant parents in the U.S. in 2008-2009 (Urban Insti- tute, 2012). From 1970 to 1997, the percentage of children of immigrants in U.S. school systems rose from 6.3% to nearly 20% (Ruiz de Velasco & Fix, 2000), and it is projected that one third of all children will be from im- migrant households by 2040 (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Education, in 2007 almost 69% of Latino and 64% of Asian-origin school age students (or 7.2 million students across the country) used a language other than English with their families at home (Aud, Fox, & KewalRamani, 2010). Traditional settlement areas like New York and Los An- geles will continue to receive newcomers to the U.S., while newer immigrant communities are emerging in less urban areas from North Carolina to Nevada (Hakimzadeh & Cohn, 2007).

Thus, adults employed at schools (i.e., administrators, counselors, teach- ers, staff) will need to be familiar with the characteristics and concerns of these students, whether the receiving schools and communities are accustomed to working with immigrant families or are relatively new to the process. Williams and Butler (2003) listed concerns of immigrant students when arriving in U.S. schools, including typical adolescent developmental concerns, learning Eng- lish, finding social support or networks of acceptance, confronting U.S. norms for racial labeling, acquiring new styles of learning, coping with posttraumatic stress, and understanding different cultural scripts. These stressors have impli- cations for academic persistence (Perreira, Harris, & Lee, 2006; Rumberger, 1995; Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010) and social and interpersonal adaptation, as well (Berry, Phinney, Sam, & Vedder, 2006). Support for these tasks is essen- tial for building a healthy school environment where students can feel accepted and appreciated in all aspects of their identity and can put their energy and fo- cus on academic and personal growth.

However, some school personnel may not have acquired expertise with im- migrant families in their training programs or prior work experiences (Williams & Butler, 2003). Multicultural courses in counselor, teacher, and adminis- trator preparation may not address issues specific to immigrants, such as the acculturation process or ethnic identity development of children and adoles- cents. In addition, student personal/social outcomes may be emphasized to different degrees in counselor, teacher, and administrator training programs. Conscientious school staff members may be seeking new ways to improve their effectiveness in integrating students from immigrant families into the school community at large.

The purpose of this essay is to help the school community improve its ability to work with students from immigrant families to enhance students' personal/ social outcomes. We will refer to personal/social outcomes identified by the counseling profession, as individual development and wellness are central con- cepts in the field (American School Counselor Association [ASCA], 2004). These ASCA outcomes will serve as a practical framework for organizing the es- say and for directing interventions in the school community. We acknowledge that counselors are more effective in promoting a healthy school community when working in concert with teachers and administrators; everyone in the sys- tem has a role to play. The school community is understood to be "found in the relationships among the people intimately attached to a school...[who] con- stantly seek better ways to insure that each child meets standards of learning" (Redding, cited in Thomas, 2011, p. 7). Specifically, we will use this essay to describe how ethnic identity can be a positive resource for immigrant students, address contexts where ethnic identity develops, and suggest ways that school personnel can work toward positive personal/social development of immigrant students by facilitating ethnic identity development. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

School Community Engaging with Immigrant Youth: Incorporating Personal/Social Development and Ethnic Identity Development
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.