Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Depression among Children under Institutional Care

By Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G. et al. | Journal of Psychosocial Research, January-June 2014 | Go to article overview

Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Depression among Children under Institutional Care


Sushma, B., Padmaja, G., Agarwal, Swati, Journal of Psychosocial Research


INTRODUCTION

One in five children in the world lives in India. A large number of these children are orphaned or destitute. Some of these children are under institutional care. These children are placed under institutional care for a variety of reasons that include inadequate parental care, experiencing abuse, forced into child labour, missing from home, runaways, poverty and death of parents. There are numerous organizations that provide institutional care to children. They take care of the daily needs of the children and provide them with food, shelter and clothing. Besides this, the educational needs of the children are also fulfilled. Quite often vocational training is given in various fields that may result in future career prospects. The children are taken care of till they attain eighteen years of age after which, some form of support may be provided to help them obtain occupation and lead independent lives.

Children are placed under institutional care so that their needs can be met and they attain good health and well being. However, this may not always be the result. Researchers who have studied the health of institutionalised children have found that they have poor health and quite often display levels of psychological problems which are higher than that of their peers who live with their families (Simsek, Erol, Öztop and Ozer Özcan, 2008; Erol, Simsek, and Munir, 2010).

The above studies depict the problems encountered in institutionalised children, but these have been outside India. There seems to be a need for more research on institutionalised children in India. Studies on the health of children under institutional care in India are also few. The present study was conducted with the intention of determining some of the psychosocial problems in institutionalised children, so that suggestions can be provided and action could be taken to improve the well being of these children.

Among the psychosocial problems both internalising and externalising problems are prevalent among institutionalised children (Wiik et al., 2011; Erol, S imsek, and Munir, 2010). However, there are contradictory results about which is higher. Some studies such as that by Simsek, Erol, Öztop and Ozer Özcan, (2008), who carried out a cross sectional study of 674 children aged 6-18 years, found that the level of externalizing problems is more than internalising problems.

The study by Wiik et al. (2011) compared eight to eleven year old children who have been institutionalized (n = 68) with those who had been adopted after living under foster care (n= 74) and non adopted children (n=76). It was found that Children, who had been raised in institutional or foster care and then adopted, were reported to have high levels of externalizing symptoms by their adoptive parents.

Egelund and Lausten (2009) in their study on children in Denmark compared 1072 out-of-home care children, 1457 children subject to child protection services but are living at home and 71,321 non-welfare children. Their study found prevalence of hyperactivity in out of home care children. Even after being removed from institutional care, the after effects of it remain with many post institutionalised children continuing to show hyperactivity (Wiik et al. 2011).

The study by Stevens et al (2008) compared 144 institutionally reared Romanian children, 21 non-institutionally reared Romanian children and 44 within UK adoptees. The researchers in this study found that inattention and overactivity that resulted from institutional deprivation was also associated with conduct problems in children.

Attar-Schwartz (2007) studied 4420 children in Israel and found that an increase in the length of stay in an institutional setting decreases social problems and aggressive behaviour in the children. This could be because children who come to reside in institutions come from tumultuous background and stay in the group homes which have a stable and consistent environment. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems and Depression among Children under Institutional Care
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.