Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region Called 'Partium'

By Fényes, Hajnalka | CEPS Journal : Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, April 1, 2014 | Go to article overview

Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region Called 'Partium'


Fényes, Hajnalka, CEPS Journal : Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal


Introduction

Our goal in this paper is to examine the attitudes toward gender roles of higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. In the theoretical part of the paper, we deal with gender roles in general, with the socialisation to gender roles, and with the changes in the trends of gender role attitudes in Hungary. In the empirical part, we create clusters of students based on the level of agreement with the ten different statements about gender roles, using the SPSS statistical software, and we explore the effect of gender, faculty type ('female dominated' or 'male dominated'), the social background of students (measured by the cultural and the material capital of students) and religiosity on the gender role attitudes of students (more traditional or more modern) in the frame of a logistic regression model. We have formulated sev- eral hypotheses, and we will control them by using this quantitative method. Finally, in the summary we attempt to show some educational policy implica- tions of our results.

Gender roles

According to Linton's definition, a 'role' is a behaviour pattern belong- ing to a particular social status (see Buda, 1985). The role regulates the vari- ous norms that define the behaviour in various social positions and statuses in contrast with other status holders; thus, role-behaviour is an interactive pro- cess. 'Gender roles are the roles that men and women are expected to occupy based on their sex' (Blackstone, 2003, p. 337). 'Woman's role is a set of primarily feminine behavioral features and norms [...] rules and prescriptions, which are related to the behavior and communication of women with men and other role partners' (Buda, 1985, p. 100).

According traditional gender role perceptions, women should behave in ways that are nurturing, and men should be the head of their household and should provide financial support for the family. Modern gender roles per- ceptions suggest an alternative view. They suggest that individuals' behaviour should not be determined only by their sex and that there should be more egalitarian relationships between men and women. Individuals should have the right to choose the roles they want to occupy and to what extent these roles are associated with their sex. (Blackstone, 2003)

Functionalists (Parsons & Bales, 1955) propose that a division of labour according to gender is inevitable and beneficial for society. The role of men is instrumental (to provide sustenance), whereas the role of women is expressive (to provide emotional support). However, in modern societies, there tend to be increasingly fewer jobs that women are not able to do; thus, the division of labour according to gender is not inevitable.

Inglehart and Norris (2003) examine how the traditional gender role attitudes changed in 70 countries in the 20th century. Their finding is that so- cioeconomic development (the shift from agrarian societies to industrialised societies, and the shift from industrial towards post-industrial societies) trans- forms cultural attitudes towards gender equality. As a result of modernisation, the traditional family model is declining, and there has been a rise of gender equality. Richer, post-industrial societies have much more egalitarian gender role attitudes than poorer, agrarian, industrial ones do.

The reasons for the changes in gender roles are women's increasing par- ticipation in education and the labour market, and the increasing secularisation, '[...] which eroded the traditional religious base of the many moral absolutes associated with the family' (Scott, 2006, p. 3). Increasing individual autonomy and female emancipation also have an effect on women's roles. However, the results of Scott, based on European Value Surveys, show that nowadays most countries still regard marriage and family as essential institutions. (Scott, 2006)

Fortin (2005) shows that traditional gender role attitudes remaining popular in developed countries after World War II may be due to the wide- spread acceptance of religious conservatism, and this could be one of the cause of the slowdown in a decrease in the wage gap between men and women and the slowdown in the increase in women's employment rates. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region Called 'Partium'
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.