Perceived Reactions of Elementary School Students to Changes in School Lunches after Implementation of the United States Department of Agriculture's New Meals Standards: Minimal Backlash, but Rural and Socioeconomic Disparities Exist

By Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J. | Childhood Obesity, August 2014 | Go to article overview

Perceived Reactions of Elementary School Students to Changes in School Lunches after Implementation of the United States Department of Agriculture's New Meals Standards: Minimal Backlash, but Rural and Socioeconomic Disparities Exist


Turner, Lindsey, Chaloupka, Frank J., Childhood Obesity


[Author Affiliation]

Lindsey Turner. 1 Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. 2 Present affiliation: College of Education, Boise State University, Boise, ID.

Frank J. Chaloupka. 1 Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. 3 Department of Economics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Address correspondence to: Lindsey Turner, PhD, Research Associate Professor, College of Education, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725, E-mail: lindseyturner1@boisestate.edu

Introduction

Most US children's diets exceed recommended levels of sugar, fat, and sodium1 and are deficient in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.2-4 Given the documented role of foods and beverages consumed at school in contributing to children's excessive intake of solid fats and added sugars,5 the school food environment has received much attention recently. Nationally representative data on school lunches from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study-IV in 2009-2010 showed that elementary school lunches as offered and served exceeded recommendations for average percentage of daily calories from solid fats and added sugars and fell short of recommended daily amounts of vegetables and whole grains.6

The majority of US public schools participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), which is administered by the USDA, and provided meals to 31 million students in 2012.7 Until recently, USDA meals standards had not been updated for 15 years, but as directed by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010,8 the USDA revised the meals standards to align with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.9 New standards were released in 2012,10 requiring implementation in the 2012-2013 school year.

The updated USDA standards for lunches11 required that by 2012-2013 half of grains offered must be whole-grain-rich products, with phase-in so that by 2014-2015 all grains are whole-grain rich. Both a fruit and a vegetable must now be offered daily, with a variety of vegetables to be served within a week, including dark green vegetables, red/orange vegetables, legumes, starches, and other vegetables. Milk is limited to nonfat or low-fat (1%) milk (sweetened flavored milk is only allowed if nonfat). Limits on saturated fats did not change from the previous standards, but trans fats were limited to zero, and new targets for lower sodium content were established. Although the new USDA meal standards do not restrict any particular foods--such as those common in school meals and often high in fat, such as pizza and fries--in some schools these foods have been removed from menus or revised to better meet the nutritional standards. For example, some schools offer more-healthful versions of pizza by using lower-fat cheese, vegetables instead of meats for toppings, and whole-grain crusts.

The new standards bring the potential for major improvements in the quality of school lunches, but also created many implementation challenges for school and district food service personnel.12 A recent study by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) indicated that student participation in the NSLP dipped by 3.7% from 2010-2011 to 2012-2013 and concluded that decreased participation--which occurred mainly among full-price-paying students--may have been the result of increased meal prices and/or decreased student acceptance of the new lunches.13 The GAO also surveyed state child nutrition directors during the summer of 2013, and respondents confirmed that implementing the new regulations had been challenging.13 Difficulties included challenges in planning new menus, increased costs resulting from more fruits and vegetables, and dealing with plate waste from food thrown away, rather than being consumed, by students. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Perceived Reactions of Elementary School Students to Changes in School Lunches after Implementation of the United States Department of Agriculture's New Meals Standards: Minimal Backlash, but Rural and Socioeconomic Disparities Exist
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.