Review of Psychological Study on Crisis Negotiation

By Jianqing, Liu | Cross - Cultural Communication, May 1, 2014 | Go to article overview

Review of Psychological Study on Crisis Negotiation


Jianqing, Liu, Cross - Cultural Communication


Abstract

The crisis negotiation is a law enforcement action to remove the threat of hijackers and rescue hostages in a peaceful way. The essence of successful crisis negotiation is effective communication. About forty years of practical experience and empirical research on crisis intervention show that the way of communication is better than that of the tactical attack; the personality traits of a negotiator, such as emotional stability, empathic ability, divergent thinking mode, etc., have an important influence; the hijackers are characterized with emotionality, criminality and spirituality in diversified motivations, and paranoid type and abnormalism in personality and behavioral characteristics; the hostages may appear specific subconscious self-defense reaction of Stockholm syndrome during the crisis; and the successful negotiator shall be the combination of police and clinical psychologist with rich practical experience, and be the "psychologist with gun" with an effective confrontation to the hijackers and crisis events.

Based on early practice and theoretical model of crisis negotiation, this article focuses on reviewing and analyzing the communication techniques such as active listening, self-exposure and role playing in crisis negotiation, characteristics and psychological reactions of hijackers and hostages, and personalities and behavioral characteristics of negotiators and selection and training programs of negotiators.

Key words: Crisis negotiation; Negotiation skill; Negotiation expert; Stockholm Syndrome

INTRODUCTION

Crisis negotiation is a technique for law enforcement officers to communicate with people who are threatening the life of hostagewith the development of about forty years> Procedures and techniques of the crisis negotiation have been Wldely used m dealmê Wlth cnsis events by ^ law enforcement agency. The practice of crisis negotiation originated in 1970s, for dealing with crime and political events with distinctive features of hostage-taking. For example, the massacre of Olympic athletes caused by the terrorists in Munich in 1972 and the prevalent aircraft hijacking event in the 1970s quickly promoted the technical development of crisis negotiation (Getz, McCann, 1998). Therein, positive activities of the New York Police Department (NYPD) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) played an important pioneering role, These pioneers not only have developed specific crisis negotiation techniques and theoretical models, but also promoted the transformation from "the first generation of crisis negotiation" to "the second generation of crisis negotiation", that is, the technique of crisis negotiation is transformed from coping with terrorism and political events to coping to unexpected crimes. For example, the Hostage Negotiation Team (HNT) was renamed the Crisis Negotiation Team (CNT). (Call, 2003) Currently, the crisis negotiation has become a routine technique to respond to crisis events by Western law enforcement agency (police force) from occasional use to standard procedures. Accordingly, the psychological study of crisis negotiation involves in the strategies and techniques in crisis negotiation, as well as personality and behavioral characteristics of the hijackers, negotiators and hostages.

1. EARLY PRACTICE AND THEORETICAL MODEL OF CRISIS NEGOTIATION

The crisis negotiation appeared as an auxiliary scheme to respond to crisis crimes. That is, the crisis negotiation is an auxiliary technique rather than a major or dominant technique to tactical offensive strategy. As the crisis negotiator plays an increasingly significant positive role in dealing with crisis events, crisis negotiation has gradually become a standard procedure and preferred solution to deal with crisis events. A crisis negotiator is also visually described as "a psychologist with gun".

In the initial application period of crisis negotiation, the law enforcement officers had a simple dialogue with the criminal suspect if tactical offense was not suitable, so as to avoid direct force confrontation and resolve the crisis. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Review of Psychological Study on Crisis Negotiation
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.