The Influence of Music on the Symptoms of Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis

By Silverman, Michael J. | Journal of Music Therapy, Spring 2003 | Go to article overview

The Influence of Music on the Symptoms of Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis


Silverman, Michael J., Journal of Music Therapy


The purpose of this study was to analyze the existing quantitative research evaluating the influence of music upon the symptoms of psychosis. A meta-analysis was conducted on 19 studies. Results indicated that music has proven to be significantly effective in suppressing and combating the symptoms of psychosis (d = +0. 71). However, there were no differing effects between live versus recorded music and between structured music therapy groups versus passive listening. Nor were there differing effects between preferred versus therapist-selected music. Additionally, classical music did not prove as effective as nonclassical music in reducing psychotic symptoms. This supports the therapeutic potential of popular music while dispelling the theory that classical music provides the form and structure that can contribute to mental health and well-being. Further quantitative research is recommended and strongly warranted to refine unique aspects of music therapy interventions effective for those with psychotic symptoms.

Conducting any sort of research is difficult; research done particularly with clients diagnosed with schizophrenia has proven very challenging throughout the years. Millon and Diesenhaus (1972) noted that research in psychopathology has many complications such as the presence of obscure and unreliable data, choosing between scientifically safe and clinically significant problems, issues of clinical responsibility and ethics, and complications of execution.

While Emil Kraepelin's pioneering work with schizophrenia should be commended for its innovativeness, he was the product of an environment that unquestionably accepted the appropriateness of the methods and theories of his medicine and research. The problems in his methodology were never considered and he appeared to have either been unaware of or chosen to ignore the most basic principles of empirical inquiry (Boyle, 1990). A recurring problem in Kraepelin's early writings was that of knowing what data he actually collected and the manner in which he collected it. In fact, Rowe (1906) noticed his lack of reliability in the measurement of the outcome. A number of flaws have been pointed out in Kraepelin's `subjective and unquantified' accounts, including the need to present systematically gathered data, the importance of clear description so that others may attempt to replicate the observations, the importance of reliability, and the dangers of question begging (Boyle, 1990). Gardner (1931) also noted the need for further quantitative literature concerning schizophrenia in his test measuring intelligence and learning.

In current music therapy literature, there exist a great number of studies dealing with schizophrenia and/or psychosis. However, most of these studies are qualitative and provide information that may not generalize to other clients with the same diagnosis and objectives (Alexander, 1996). Today, music therapists must provide accountability for their methods and, as qualitative data does not generalize, this type of data is often times not considered as reimbursable by insurance companies (Hanser, 1999; Rogers, 1995). Methods that combine observational and self-report measures and investigate `significant events' are becoming a dominant modality (Alexander, 1996). Furthermore, quantitative methods not having some statement about the probability of the occurrence of the phenomenon due to random sources are treated judgmentally (Neufeld, 1977). Case studies and other types of qualitative data (participant observation, protocol analysis, discourse analysis, conversation analysis, voice-centered techniques, photographic analysis, diary studies, document analysis, computational modeling) do not provide the required accountability health care providers need. Qualitative research's foundation within the mental health field is still not as secure as that of quantitative research (Good & Watts, 1996). However, quantitative data are not easily attainable within the given population. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Influence of Music on the Symptoms of Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.