Connection between Epic and Play in Shahnameh: Comparative Study of Cognitive Drama Features in Two Stories of "Rostam and Sohrab" and "Rostam and Esfandiar"

By Valadbeigi, Rahmatollah; Babakhani, Tahereh | Journal of Sociological Research, July 1, 2014 | Go to article overview

Connection between Epic and Play in Shahnameh: Comparative Study of Cognitive Drama Features in Two Stories of "Rostam and Sohrab" and "Rostam and Esfandiar"


Valadbeigi, Rahmatollah, Babakhani, Tahereh, Journal of Sociological Research


Abstract

This article aims to reject the eastern theories that believe Iranians lack classical texts which are presentable in play and makes an attempt to modify this theory and show that Ferdowsi has been able to link epic and play in his stories by describing and matching based on capabilities and dramatic features of the stories of Rostam and Sohrab and Rostam and Esfandiar. The article provides the context of Iranian literature for the generation of play and drama, because existence of plan, description, characterization, causation, suspension, tragedy, conflict, climax, dialogue, time, and location have given play form and context to many tales of Shahnameh. Of course, Ferdowsi has not composed play but has composed epic. It can be argued that the stories in Shahnameh have the play structure in epic form.

Keywords: Play, Epic, Shahnameh, Dramatic, Story Elements.

Introduction

Giving importance to common human affliction is the secret of maintaining oral and written literary works of any nation. The reason is that topics such as ill-temper, good-temper, hatred, love, chastity, honesty, hypocrisy, envy, anger and greed have been and will be the subjects of all generations and eras and no generation has been able to ignore, abandon or lose them entirely. On the other hand, the way of expressing and creative structure as well as the legendary, fictional and mythical structure of these stories and statements have not made a difference among them. So, dealing with common afflictions with common subjective language in various literary forms shows the unity and uniformity which is the secret of maintaining; both " Iliad and Odyssey of Homer" and Ferdowsi's Shahnameh.

Epic and play connection plan in Shahnameh

Shahnameh stories include human life and concerns of the era in the form of stories, myths, and legends. Deliberate attention to these stories, which has inspired thousands of qualified painters and booming tellers' and narratives' assemblies during consequent centuries, is a great testament that this work has the capabilities of being a play. In fact, Shahnameh is the main source of mythological and epic narratives of Iranians in Farsi. In Shahnameh, the oral traditions can be noted and preserved. A characteristic of Shahnameh is that various narrations' features are combined together and the characters in which appear are unknown to the Avesta and Pahlavi sources (Amoozegar, 2004). Considering the signs and technical indicators in a literary work gives an especial literary and worthy-read reputation to it, so that it will become more attractive and will have long lasting impact. In play, this issue is highlighted and the reader should be made aware of past events and should be ended by solving a problem that the writer has presented through the story. In a more technical term, play is a conflict between two individuals or two different points. Play will never end unless one of the parties will win and we ,as the readers, realize what the results have brought about by one's winning and the other's defending.

The context of designing play ideas is the same texts or mythic- analogic- dramatic epopee of the epics which exists in all countries, because it seems that ideas of narration, poetry and philosophical ideas are not something which exists in Greek civilization but not in Persian, Chinese, and ,Hindi civilizations or vice versa. However, the roots of the original works that we see today in the New World were also formed during the mythological periods with human beings and have been transmitted from generation to generation, but their fraction has made their analysis difficult. "The oldest known written epic and heroic poetry remained in the world are agonistic and epical poems; from Gilgamesh, an ancient Sumerian epic which is the world's most ancient poem and the inscription of the second millennium BC, and the time of the Assyrian king Ashur Banipal to Yasht'ha in are about the most precious part of the Avesta, the Zoroastrian divine letter and Homer's epics written about hundred years after Gilgamesh and the Ramayana's epic, the ancient Hindu epic written more or less contemporarily with Homer's Iliad and Odyssey"(Kazazi,2007a, p. …

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