Effectiveness of Industrial and Organizational Psychology in Present Scenario

By Jain, Mitushi | Journal of Social Welfare and Management, April-June 2014 | Go to article overview

Effectiveness of Industrial and Organizational Psychology in Present Scenario


Jain, Mitushi, Journal of Social Welfare and Management


Introduction

Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, or personnel psychology) is the scientific study of employees, workplaces, and organizations. Industrial and organizational psychologists contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance and well-being of its people. An 1/O psychologist researches and identifies how behaviors and attitudes can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, and feedback systems.

I/O psychologists also help organizations transition among periods of change and development. Industrial and organizational psychology is related to the concepts of organizational behavior and human capital. As described above, 1-0 psychologists are trained in the scientist-practitioner model.

1-0 psychologists rely on a variety of methods to conduct organizational research. Study designs employed by 1-0 psychologists include surveys, experiments, quasiexperiments, and observational studies. 1-0 psychologists rely on diverse data sources including human judgments, historical databases, objective measures of work performance (e.g., sales volume), and questionnaires and surveys.

An applied science, 1-0 psychology is represented by Division 14 of the American Psychological Association, known formally as the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP).

Definitions

Industrial Psychology is the branch of applied psychology that is concerned with efficient management of an industrial labor force and especially with problems encountered by workers in a mechanized environment.

Guión (1965) defines 1-0 (industrial Organizational) psychology as "the scientific study of the relationship between man and the world of work: ... in the process of making a living".

Blum & Naylor (1968) define it as "simply the application or extension of psychological facts and principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry".

Industrial Psychology applies the techniques of psychology to the industrial scene and the problems confronting it.

1-0 psychology has historically subsumed two broad areas of study, as evident by its name, although this distinction is largely artificial and many topics cut across both areas. It has roots in social psychology; organizational psychologists examine the role of the work environment in performance and other outcomes including job satisfaction and health.

Sometimes, 1-0 psychology is considered a sister field or branch of organizational studies, organizational science, organizational behavior, human resources, and/or management, but there is no universally accepted classification system for these related fields.

The Scope of industrial psychology is actually the same as the scope of personnel management, i.e., the entire process of management's dealings with the people at work, except that Industrial psychology emphasizes the scientific and research aspects of people at work and omits many of the routine administrative details.

Scope of Industrial Psychology and the Industrial Psychologist

Common research and practice areas for IO O include:

Job performance

Job analysis/competency modeling

Personnel recruitment and selection

Student/educational selection (admissions) and assessment (testing)

Judgment and decision making

Performance appraisal/management

Individual assessment (knowledge, skills, and ability testing, personality assessment, work sample tests, assessment centers)

Psychometrics

Compensation

Training and training evaluation

Employment law

Work motivation

Job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction, commitment, organizational citizenship, and retaliation)

Occupational health and safety

Work/life balance

Human factors and decision making

Organizational culture/climate

Organizational surveys

Leadership and executive coaching

Ethics

Diversity

Job design

Human resources

Organizational development (OD)

Organizational Research Methods

Technology in the workplace

Group/team performance

Team composition

Apart from this, the activities which can be considered as part of the general domain of an industrial psychologist are enumerated below:

1. …

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