The Impact of Managers' Self-Awareness, Positivity and Psychological Ownership on Organizational Citizenship Behavior

By Zamahani, Majid; Rezaei, Faezeh | International Review of Management and Business Research, September 2014 | Go to article overview

The Impact of Managers' Self-Awareness, Positivity and Psychological Ownership on Organizational Citizenship Behavior


Zamahani, Majid, Rezaei, Faezeh, International Review of Management and Business Research


Introduction

The field of leadership has covered much ground in the last hundred years. Researchers in this area have created a great deal of valuable knowledge on leader traits and behaviors, follower characteristics, leader- follower relationships, and situational contingencies of leadership as well as other related topics and there has been growing interest in the field around a new construct, authentic leadership. The creators of this construct contend that the decrease in ethical leadership (e.g., Worldcom, Enron, Martha Stewart) coupled with an increase in societal challenges (e.g., September 11 terrorism, fluctuating stock values, a downturn in the U.S. economy) necessitates the need for positive leadership more so than in any other time (Cooper et al, 2005). As former head of Medtronic, Bill George (2003), succinctly states: -we need leaders who lead with purpose, values, and integrity; leaders who build enduring organizations, motivate their employees to provide superior customer service, and create long-term value for shareholders" (Avolio &Gardner, 2005).

A rise in interest in positive forms of leadership is due in part to mounting evidence supporting the central role of positivity in enhancing human well-being and performance at work. For example, initial research (e.g., Liden, Wayne, Zhao, & Henderson, 2008; Peterson, Walumbwa, Byron, & Myrowitz, 2009; Walumbwa, Hartnell, & Oke, 2010; Walumbwa, Luthans, Avey, & Oke, 2009) suggests that leaders who possess a variety of positive states or traits, goals, values, and character strengths are able to positively influence followers' states, behavior, and performance (Walumbwa et al, 2010).

The psychological aspects of ownership have been explored by various disciplines, such as anthropology, psychology, philosophy, marketing, and business management (Wang et al, 2006). Psychological ownership is the psychologically experienced phenomenon in which an employee develops possessive feelings for the target. There are many researches to examine psychological ownership, for example VandeWalle et al. (1995) examined psychological ownership of housing cooperative residents and showed relationships of psychological ownership with commitment and satisfaction to the cooperative and self- perceptions of extra-role behavior. Pendleton et al.'s (1998) study of four U.K. bus companies showed feelings of ownership were related to satisfaction, involvement, integration, commitment, and self- perceived changes in attitudes and work-related behaviors. Finally, Parker, Wall, and Jackson's work on quality management (1997) showed production ownership was linked to concerns for unfinished work (Dyne & Pierce, 2004).

Topics discussed in this article include reviewing the effects of managers' self-awareness (one of the component of authentic leadership), positivity and psychological capital on leaders' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in the workplace. This study by using different methods has followed to find how self-awareness, positivity and psychological capital constructs are related to managers' OCB.

Authentic Leadership and Psychological Capital and Ownership

Authenticity

Authenticity as a construct dates back to at least the ancient Greeks, as captured by their timeless admonition to -be true to oneself" (Walumbwa et al, 2008; Gardner et al, 2009; Novicevic et al, 2006) or -To thine own self be true" (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Clapp -Smith et al, 2009). Also authenticity implies that -one acts in accord with the true self, expressing oneself in ways that are consistent with inner thoughts and feelings" (Michie and Gooty, 2005). As conceptualized within the emerging field of positive psychology (Seligman, 2002), authenticity can be defined as -owning one's personal expe riences, be they thoughts, emotions, needs, preferences, or beliefs, processes captured by the injunction to know oneself" and behaving in accordance with the true self" (Walumbwa et al, 2008). …

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