Pre-Service Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Knowledge: A Continuum of Views on Effective Technology Integration

By Lee, Kathryn S.; Smith, Shaunna et al. | Journal of Distance Education (Online), May 1, 2014 | Go to article overview

Pre-Service Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Knowledge: A Continuum of Views on Effective Technology Integration


Lee, Kathryn S., Smith, Shaunna, Bos, Beth, Journal of Distance Education (Online)


INTRODUCTION

Technology integration is arguably a relevant topic in teacher education, because numerous state, national, and international educational standards indicate the importance of educators integrating technology to support their own instruction as well as providing hands-on opportunities for students to actively use technology throughout their learning experiences. Therefore, teacher educators are

charged with promoting teacher candidates' integration of technology in their teaching and design of authentic and engaging learning experiences for their students. This case study investigates teacher candidates' development of technology integration in their instructional planning as well as their perceptions of technology integration in teaching and learning after having completed an online teaching methods course. The course emphasized technology integration in instructional planning.

RELEVANT LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) outlines specific standards for students, teachers, and administrators to endorse the technological skills and knowledge individuals need to function productively in our global and digital society (2014). The ISTE Standards for Teachers (2008) are summarized according to the organization's following categories:

1. Facilitate and inspire student learning and creativity.

2. Design and develop digital age learning experiences and assessments.

3. Model digital age work and learning.

4. Promote and model digital citizenship and responsibility.

5. Engage in professional growth and leadership.

Even though technology integration in teaching and learning has been promoted for many years, beginning teachers and pre-service teachers continue to feel inadequately prepared to effectively integrate technology into instruction (Funkhouser & Mouza, 2013; Lei, 2009; Tondeur, van Braak, Sang, Voogt, Fisser, & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2012). Lei (2009) explained the complex process required to prepare pre-service teachers to integrate technology in teaching and learning:

To help pre-service teachers integrate technology into teaching in meaningful ways, technology cannot be taught as a separate and independent domain. Instead, teacher education programs need to help pre-service teachers understand how technology intersects with content and with pedagogy and make connections between technology, content, and pedagogy. (p. 93)

The skill to choose technological tools that support pedagogical instructional methods is what Mishra and Koehler (2006) refer to as Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK). Teachers need to feel confident in their ability to integrate technology effectively in their instruction in order to meet the challenges of teaching and learning in this technological age (Buabeng-Andoh, 2012; Jamieson-Proctor, Finger, & Albion, 2010). Kereluik, Mishra, Fahnoe, and Terry (2013) elaborated on the components of TPK by stating the following:

Knowing when to use a particular technology for activities such as collaboration, or why to use a certain technology for acquiring specific disciplinary knowledge, is a vastly, more important, transferable, infinitely relevant type of knowledge, one that will not quickly become antiquated with ever-changing technological trends. (p. 133)

Theoretical Framework

This investigation was by Mishra and Koehler's (2006) Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. This popular framework provides educators a way to think about and articulate the complex relationships among various types of knowledge required of effective teachers. Mishra and Koehler (2006) added a technology dimension to Shulman's (1986) framework in which effective teacher knowledge was defined as the integration of pedagogical and content knowledge (PCK) within a teacher's specific discipline. The framework supports the idea that today's teachers require technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), a composite of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge as illustrated in Figure 1. …

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