Comparison of Age- Standard Incidence Rate Trends of Gynecologic and Breast Cancer in Iran and Other Countries

By Arab, Maliheh; Noghabaei, Giti | Iranian Journal of Public Health, October 2014 | Go to article overview

Comparison of Age- Standard Incidence Rate Trends of Gynecologic and Breast Cancer in Iran and Other Countries


Arab, Maliheh, Noghabaei, Giti, Iranian Journal of Public Health


Itroduction

Cancer occurrence is highly influenced by environment, genetic, gender, age, race, socioeconomic status, education, culture, obesity, and all life style related factors which might result in incidence rate change of these cancers in every population (1, 2). Main gynecologic cancers (ovary, endometrium and cervix) besides breast cancer are responsible for 1.6% of total human cancers in the world (3).

Breast, endometrium and ovary are cancers with high incidence in the developed and western countries, North Europe and North America. Lower incidence in the less developed regions including Asian countries is observed (3-5). There are suggestions regarding different survival of ovarian cancer, adjusted by available diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. More attention to confounding factors are needed, for instance undiagnosed late stage ovarian cancer cases leading to dead affect involved diagnosed cancer population into more early stage and lower age population (6). Cervical cancer incidence is among the 3 most common female cancers in 90% of the countries in the world (7).

Breast and gynecologic cancer incidence rates are the consequence of many factors. A common well known etiology for breast, ovarian and endome- trial cancer is parity, with lower incidence in mul- tiparous women (8-11). Ovarian cancer risk is less in multiparous and oral contraceptive user females. Risk factors of ovarian cancer include age, white race, nulliparity, positive family history of ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer (12-14).

Cervical cancer is more common in the regions with low socioeconomic status (15).

Study of incidence trend might clarify epidemio- logic and clinical points to be studied more and used as and documented background for decision making and necessary interventions. In the pre- sent study change of incidence rate in breast, ovar- ian, endometrial and cervical cancer in a 4-5 year period of time in different countries including Iran is compared.

Materials and Methods

Data of 2004 national cancer registry of Iran, pub- lished by the Iranian Ministry of Health regarding all reported breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervi- cal cancers were included in this comparative study (16). Iranian national cancer registry report, as pathology based registry has presented crude incidence rates.

These data are not standardized by population in 2004, so comparing it with those of the other countries is not possible. From 2008, age standard data of Iran is presented in GLOBOCAN data- base.

So, in the first step, results of breast, ovarian, en- dometrial and cervical cancer patients were stand- ardized with standard world population. All re- ported female cancers of breast, cervix, ovary, and endometrium were included in the analysis. Since other gynecologic cancers are rare their crude in- cidence rates were not included in the study. Data of each of cancers in 2004 was separately pro- ceeded to age- standard incidence rate according to the world standard population of the same year. In the second step, results of Age- standard inci- dence rates (ASR) of the 4 above mentioned can- cers in Iran, 2004 besides ASR of 6 other coun- tries including USA, Australia, Japan, India, Africa and Thailand, 2004 were compared to ASR re- ports of all above mentioned cancers in 2008, GLOBOCAN database.

The main variables are ASR of breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer cases in different countries which are presented in two time cutoff (2004 and 2008), in order to clarify the trend of disease in these time periods in different regions. Cancer registry data of Iran is pathology based which include 80% of cancer cases (16).

This 80% coverage might make results biased. Published data of the Iranian ministry of health and care is ethically available for study and private data of patients is not included.

Results

About 24498 female cancer patients were reported in 2004 Iran, including 1923 (7. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Comparison of Age- Standard Incidence Rate Trends of Gynecologic and Breast Cancer in Iran and Other Countries
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.