Political Attitudes, Values, and Procedures in the Young Eastern European Democracies. A Case Study on the Attitudes toward Democracy of the Macedonian Students

By Cvetanova, Ganka; Naumovska, Bojana | European Quarterly of Political Attitudes and Mentalities, October 2014 | Go to article overview

Political Attitudes, Values, and Procedures in the Young Eastern European Democracies. A Case Study on the Attitudes toward Democracy of the Macedonian Students


Cvetanova, Ganka, Naumovska, Bojana, European Quarterly of Political Attitudes and Mentalities


1. Introduction

'Democracy' is one of the most used and arguable concepts in more recent history, i.e. in the age of so- called Third Wave of democratization and particularly after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The definitions and the operationalizing of this concept vary. Hence, even though there is no universally accepted definition, there are two approaches in defining 'democracy': 'minimal' and 'maximal'. The first one focuses on the importance of 'means', that is, procedures such as fair elections, respect for human rights, and universal suffrage. In contrast, maximal definitions include not only democratic procedures but also 'ends', or outputs (such as economic equality and social services) (Baviskar and Malone, 2004: 4).

The Republic of Macedonia gained its independence in the year 1991 following the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Taking into consideration the fact that it is a relatively young democratic country, Macedonian society is still regarded as a society in a democratic transition1. Thus, discussion pertaining to the relevance and significance of democracy, as well as democratic awareness of its citizens, is one of the most contested issues in the political and academic debates in the Republic of Macedonia. The issue of the level of democratic awareness of the citizens is of a great importance having in mind, in particular, the fact that a stable democratic regime does not only require well-designed and functioning political institutions and processes to be sustainable and consolidated, it requires democrats (Mattes et al., 1999).

This paper gives an insight into the democratic awareness of young people in Macedonia, in particular about their attitudes, values and practices in terms of democratic principles. Our findings rely on the data from the project entitled "Virtual and Real Identities in the Republic of Macedonia", conducted by the Institute for Sociological, Political and Juridical Research in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. The project was based on the research of political attitudes and identities of the student population in Macedonia, by direct surveying of respondents. The survey was conducted from September 2012 until July 2013. The survey was undertaken among the students at the Universities in Skopje, Bitola, Shtip and Tetovo. Three of these universities were public, while the other two were private. The number of respondents in the survey is representative for the Republic of Macedonia in terms of ethnicity, gender, religion, place of residence, and region2. It covered a sample of 707 respondents. General characteristics of the sample were the following: 707 students from 5 state universities and 2 private universities; 256 male and 451 female; Macedonians 442, Albanians 239 and others 26; 201 living in rural and 504 in urban area3.

The survey questionnaire includes questions that explore students' attitudes towards democracy, in particular their interest in politics and their civic engagement:

Q: "Are the students interested in politics?"

Q: "How often do they discuss about politics with their friends?"

Q: "Which political ideology is closest to students?"

Q: "Students' willingness to participate in civic activities?"

Q: "Students' engagement in civic associations?"

Yet, it has to be emphasized that the paper presents only preliminary analysis and evaluations of the empirical findings of our institutional research project.

Having in mind that the paper focuses on the attitudes towards democracy of the Macedonian students, the notions of 'democracy', 'citizen participation', and 'civic activism' are to be further defined and elaborated on.

2. Understanding Democracy

In political theory, 'democracy' is described as a political philosophy, but also as a form of governing, where the governing power lies in the hands of people, and it may be exercised either in an immediate (direct democracy) or intermediate manner (indirect democracy), i. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Political Attitudes, Values, and Procedures in the Young Eastern European Democracies. A Case Study on the Attitudes toward Democracy of the Macedonian Students
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.