Still Separate, Still Unequal: The Relation of Segregation in Neighborhoods and Schools to Education Inequality

By Johnson, Odis | The Journal of Negro Education, Summer 2014 | Go to article overview

Still Separate, Still Unequal: The Relation of Segregation in Neighborhoods and Schools to Education Inequality


Johnson, Odis, The Journal of Negro Education


(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

Sixty years after Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Kansas (1954), the nation has secured racially separate schools once again. School desegregation reached the height of its success during the Nixon-Ford administrations (1969-1977). For example, the percentage of African Americans in southern schools that were at least 99 percent Black declined from 99.5 percent in 1962 to 17.9 percent by 1975 (The South includes the states of DE, DC, FL, GA, MD, NC, SC, VA, WV, AL, KY, MS, TN, AR, LA, OK, and TX). A similar trend occurred in the North, where the proportion of African Americans in schools that were at least 99 percent Black declined to 14.4 percent (Mazmanian & Sabatier, 1989). In the South, school desegregation was assisted by racial segregation's decline within specific geographic units. For example, the Black-White segregation index (i.e., the proportion of African Americans needing to change geographic units for each unit's Black population to equal its percentage of the overall population) in major southern cities was relatively high and ranged from .62 to .86 in 1950 (Taeuber & Taeuber, 2009), in contrast to segregation at the county level which declined from a high of .70 in 1910 to a low of .49 in 1960 (Massey, 2001). Since southern school systems were organized by counties rather than by cities, this lower level of county segregation provided the racial diversity necessary for the desegregation of southern schools once the Civil Rights Act of 1964 enabled enforcement of the Brown rulings of 1954 and 1955.

As the migration of southern African Americans to the cities of the North reduced racial segregation in southern counties, it gave northern cities motive to confine Black settlers to ghettos and exacerbate residential levels of racial segregation and isolation (i.e., measure of interracial exposure expected among races that share residential areas). The influx also encouraged "Whiteflight", that is, a corresponding increase in White residents' departure from central cities or metropolitan areas. On this point, Boustan (2010) estimated every Black arrival to Northern cities between 1940 and 1970 resulted in 2.7 White departures, while Reber (2005) showed an exodus of White students followed the implementation of desegregation plans large enough to offset approximately one-third of a district's reduction in segregation. Segregation indices among northern large cities consequently increased from an average of .56 in 1910 to .81 in 1960 and exceeded average southern segregation levels by 10 percent (Massey, 2001). Subsequently, the school systems of cities such as St. Louis, Missouri (Wells & Crain, 1997), Yonkers, New York (Briggs, Darden, & Aidala, 1999), and Columbus, Ohio (Jacobs, 1998) became more racially homogeneous, and required urban-suburban busing and mobility plans to achieve the region's eventual decline in school segregation. Nonetheless, even the desegregation plans of large counties such as Prince George's, Maryland (Orfield & Eaton, 1996) could not survive persistent Whiteflight, and the Supreme Court eventually restricted the use of urban-suburban desegregation plans to combat the growing de facto segregation (i.e., by fact, not law) White-flight had left behind (Milliken v. Bradley, 1974).

While the Milliken decision blunted Brown's ability to address de facto segregation, other court rulings granted southern school systems unitary status (i.e., release from judicial oversight) after systems attempted to desegregate, regardless of how unsuccessful or limited the remedy appeared (Orfield & Eaton, 1996). Furthermore, the Supreme Court in 2007 limited the use of race by northern and southern districts to achieve school racial balances (Meredith v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 2007; Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, 2007). Research has shown that once released from desegregation plans and judicial oversight, school systems tended to re-segregate (Reardon et al. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Still Separate, Still Unequal: The Relation of Segregation in Neighborhoods and Schools to Education Inequality
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.