Literature Review of the Cooperative Learning Strategy - Student Team Achievement Division (STAD)

By Yeung, Hastings Chim Ho | International Journal of Education, January 1, 2015 | Go to article overview

Literature Review of the Cooperative Learning Strategy - Student Team Achievement Division (STAD)


Yeung, Hastings Chim Ho, International Journal of Education


Abstract

The literature review will include the development of cooperative learning (CL) and in-depth review on one of its derived teaching strategies, Student Team Achievement Division (STAD). It will highlight the emergence of STAD, major issues, debates, and recent investigations regarding its effectiveness, achievability, and practicability. The conclusion of this literature review provides a participative action inquiry into possible interventions. The literature review is highly relevant to the suggested research interest for some of the theoretical and conceptual frameworks and methodologies are searched and based on the existing STAD practice and knowledge in these two decades. The areas include the longitudinal and latitudinal review of relevant conceptual framework and methods, which further refine the newly proposed research questions and enhance their workability and practicability.

Keywords: STAD, Cooperative Learning, Research Methodology

1. Introduction

In this literature review we will include the development of cooperative learning (CL) and in-depth review on one of its derived teaching strategies, Student Team Achievement Division (STAD). Moreover, we will critically evaluate five pieces of researches in which it will highlight the emergence of STAD, major issues, debates, and recent investigations regarding STAD effectiveness, achievability, and practicability. The first one is from Ghazi (2001) which investigated students' enjoyment and reflection of STAD during an English lesson as Foreign Language (EFL) class in Lebanon. The study is unique because it examined the effect of gender and the students' achievement on the account of their STAD experiences. The perceptions from teachers are equally important so the second one selected is from the same researcher, Ghazi (2004), who further investigated the teachers' opinions on the STAD practice in Lebanon. Apart from the teachers and students, the contextual factors which influence the practice are also worth exploring. The third one is therefore from Khan & Inamullah in Pakistan (2011) which looked into the difference of effectiveness of STAD between experiment and control groups and how various contextual factors influenced the implementation. The work from Van Wyk (2010) in University of South Africa, which attempted to enhance the existing STAD practice and look into how the achievement scores were related to the modified practice, is selected as the fourth piece of research since it adopted a comparatively different quantitative approach by cumulating the use of the questionnaires. The last one was from Gillies (2004) in Australia which adopted a triangulative method to investigate the difference of structured and unstructured STAD groups. Gillies work(2004) is significant for it adopted a more holistic and comprehensive data collection for better reliability. Currently there are no researches related to STAD implemented in Hong Kong, all those five researches are hence chosen from different countries so that the glimpse on the global practice can be reviewed in this literature review.

2. Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD)

Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) was established based on the fulfillment of instructional pedagogy (Felder & Bren, 2001; Ghaith, 2001). Four to five students will be assigned to various groups comprising certain levels of differentiation: competence, sex, race, and so on. In this case, teachers, as facilitators, would brief the students with concise yet precise instructions. Subsequently, students will read assigned material in the Expert Group before being reclassified into STAD groups to exchange their thoughts. After the discussion in the Expert Group, the students would then return to their STAD groups for information synthesis. They will have to justify others' opinions, peer evaluate their understanding, and summarize the concepts that each individual student contributed. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Literature Review of the Cooperative Learning Strategy - Student Team Achievement Division (STAD)
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.