The Animation Film, a Field of Culture Interference

By Tipa, Violeta | International Journal of Communication Research, October-December 2014 | Go to article overview

The Animation Film, a Field of Culture Interference


Tipa, Violeta, International Journal of Communication Research


After the fall of the Iron Curtain, Europe becomes an open space for more intense cooperation not only in the field of economics but also of culture. There appears the tendency towards the formation of a unique cultural space with the same values, pattern models, enriched with elements from different cultures.

The the interferences in the visual arts are obvious and, especifically, the film became an easy to penetrate medium for a multitude of genres and artistic styles. In this context a special place is held by the animation film/cartoon - one of the most abstract and symbolic arts - which wins ground more and more in the contemporary audiovisual landscape (through short films, feature films, serials, TV shows, videos, commercials, generic etc.). That is to say animation is highlighted by its ability to exploit different cultural formulas often anchored in the national classic or contemporary culture. Today it is the cineanimation that outlines the environment where the classic culture, alongside the traditional one, the national (folk) one together with the underground one, forming a conceptual and stylistic unity. The universe of the animation film/cartoon has its origins in the cultural space that is re-transmitted in a far more encoded form than in other cinema genres.

The tough boundaries of the communist ideology, through which works of art that did not fit in the so-called socialist realism and labeled as bourgeois production could with great difficulty come through, would impose on even to creators in preconceived standards. Not only in the former ex-Soviet space the artists were limited in their creation, but also those from the other countries of the socialiat camp feel the need for greater freedom, which makes them emigrate and to have their say abroad. As a result, in the 80s a number of directors left Romania, such as Michael BADICA, Stefan Munteanu for the USA, Emanuel Tet at Hollywood Eduard Sasu in Spain, Zoltán Szilagyi in Hungary at Kecskemét studios1. In Western Europe the Poles Jan Lenica and Walerian Borowczyk emigrated.

Besides all the inconvenience the migration is marked by some positive moments too. So, among other things it conditioned the interference process of cultures and of the different genres of art. In France, for example, the Romanian writer Eugene Ionesco meets the Polish director Jan Lenica. Deeply Impressed by Ionesco's theatre of the absurd, but also by his ideas, conveyed with great ardor in the works of criticism, the Polish painter and animation film director produced the movie Monsieur Tete (1959, France). It is the first film created produced after the Romanian playwright script. The film about the human condition in contemporary society is worthy of several awards including the Grand Prix at the Festival in Oberhausen (1960). Lenica remains influenced by the work of Eugene Ionesco and pessimistic message towards reality and the dangers that can occur during the periods of transition, revolution, crisis, will dominate from now on his films. Thus, E. Ionesco's creation is found in the movie The Rhinoceros (1963, West Germany) after the playwright's homonymous play. Between 1966 and 1968 Jan Lenica is working on the ambitious project of an animation feature film Adam 2 (1969, West Germany). The film presents a journey through time and space, from the memory of the biblical paradise and its loss reaching up to fights for the preservation of individuality, being a parody of Stalinism and totalitarianism.

The disappearance of borders has enabled new insights into multicultural dialogue that can be seen in all spheres of art and culture. Communication is established through various channels. First, artists from different fields perform exchanges, creating other spaces. Secondly, there is a cooperation through joint projects -it is appropriate to recall the RomanianPolish coproduction Crulic - The Path to Beyond (Crulic The Path to Beyond, 2011, directed by Anca Damian). …

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