The Effect of Corporate Governance of the Use of Enterprise Risk Management: Evidence from Canada

By Kleffner, Anne E.; Lee, Ryan B. et al. | Risk Management and Insurance Review, Spring 2003 | Go to article overview

The Effect of Corporate Governance of the Use of Enterprise Risk Management: Evidence from Canada


Kleffner, Anne E., Lee, Ryan B., McGannon, Bill, Risk Management and Insurance Review


ABSTRACT

This article examines the use of enterprise risk management (ERM) by companies in Canada, the characteristics that are associated with the use of ERM, what obstacles companies face in implementing ERM, and what role, if any, corporate governance guidelines have played in the decision to adopt ERM. We obtained our data from the responses to a mail survey sent to Canadian Risk and Insurance Management Society members as well as telephone interviews with 19 of the respondents. The results indicate that 31 percent of the sample had adopted ERM and that reasons for adopting ERM include the influence of the risk manager (61 percent), encouragement from the board of directors (51 percent), and compliance with Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE) guidelines (37 percent). The major deterrents to ERM were an organizational structure that discourages ERM and an overall resistance to change. Although only about one-third of companies indicated that they had adopted an ERM approach, evidence was clear that a larger portion of the sample was moving in that direction, as indicated by what changes they had observed in their companies in the past three years. These include the development of company-wide guidelines for risk management (45 percent), an increased awareness of nonoperational risks by operational risk management personnel and an increased awareness of operational risks by nonoperational risk management personnel (49 percent), more coordination with different areas responsible for risk management (64 percent), and more involvement and interaction in the decision making of other departments. Contrary to what we expected, there was not a significant difference between firms that are listed on the TSE versus those that are not in terms of the propensity to use ERM. However, the fact that 37 percent of firms indicated that the TSE guidelines were influential in their decision to adopt ERM provides some evidence that the guidelines are influencing companies' risk management strategies.

INTRODUCTION

Publicly traded companies in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom began to encounter stricter corporate governance rules and guidelines during the 1990s. These changes in expectations regarding corporate governance were motivated, to a large extent, by many large corporate failures. "The corporate landscape is littered with the wreckage of companies whose directors were either asleep at the wheel or overwhelmed-from such notorious cases as Bre-X Minerals Ltd. and Livent Inc. to more recent implosions of Nortel Networks Corp. and Moore Corp" (Gray, 2001, p. 36). One key area addressed by these guidelines is risk management. For example, the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE) guidelines advocate that boards assume responsibility for "the identification of the principal business risks of the corporation's business, ensuring the implementation of appropriate systems to manage these risks/These new standards for corporate governance have created a need for the development of comprehensive corporate governance strategies that address all risks that a firm faces.

Occurring during the same time as the evolution in corporate governance standards was a greater emphasis on the benefit to companies of engaging in enterprise risk management (ERM).1 In contrast to the traditional "silo" approach to managing risk, the ERM approach requires that a company-wide approach be taken in identifying, assessing, and managing risk. Many authors have written about the expected benefits of an ERM approach and why companies should view risk from an overall corporate perspective rather than in a more narrow, department-by-department perspective. The primary benefit of ERM stems from taking a portfolio approach to risk management. That is, just as holding a diverse portfolio of stocks reduces the volatility of returns, a corporation's offsetting risks should result in a total risk level that is lower than the sum of the individual risks. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Effect of Corporate Governance of the Use of Enterprise Risk Management: Evidence from Canada
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.