Ageism in Us and Canadian Samples

By Ferraro, F. Richard | International Journal of Psychology Research, April 1, 2014 | Go to article overview

Ageism in Us and Canadian Samples


Ferraro, F. Richard, International Journal of Psychology Research


Introduction

Since Butler's (1975) definition of ageism and Palmore's (2001) seminal 20-item Ageism Survey results, the scientific study of ageism has flourished (Allan, Johnson, & Emerson, 2014; Allen, Cherry, & Palmore, 2009; Cherry, Allen, Denver, & Holland, 2013).

Ageism is prevalent and is often regarded as a negative stereotype, and can also include discrimination and prejudice and is often practiced by young as well as older adults (Allen, et ah, 2014). Ageism is performed without the perpetrator knowing they are being ageist, such that and as with many such - isms (racism, sexism) their ageist remarks, actions and behaviors are performed at an automatic (unconscious) level (Bargh, Chen, & Burrows, 1996).

While several individual difference variables have been associated with ageism (Allan et ak, 2014), and while many ageism scales and questionnaires have been developed (Allen et ak, 2009), the present study will attempt to answer some of the questions initially advanced by Palmore (2001, 2004). For instance, Palmore (2001) found little evidence of older people reporting more perceived ageism and found little if any gender differences in the frequency of items endorsed on his 20-item Ageism Survey. He did report an education effect; subjects with less education tended to report more experiences with ageism. In his 2004 paper, Palmore found that Canadians reported more incidents of ageism than US samples.

The present study was an attempt to elucidate some of these original findings using an on-line survey tool (MTURK) and including measures and measurements of demographic and psychological variables. Individuals aged 40 and older were tested on the Ageism Survey and also asked about education level, self-rated health and were given a commonly-used measure of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale- Short Form; Ferraro & Chelminski, 1996).

Not only is it expected that age will be positively associated with number of Ageism Survey items endorsed), it is also expected that females will endorse more items as occurring once or more than once, in comparison to males.

It is also expected that a positive relationship between number of Ageism Survey items endorsed as occurring once or more than once and scores of the GDS-SF.

We also, consistent with Palmore (2001), expected that education level will impact ageism experiences, with those with lower levels of education experiencing more ageism. Finally, Palmore (2004) reported that Canadians reported more ageism than US samples. We expect this to be the same for the present study.

Methods

Participants

There were a total of 182 (US) and 20 (Canada) participants, with 61 being male and 141 being female. The average age was 50.56 years (SD = 8.17, range = 40-72), the average number of years of education was 15.18 (SD = 2.41, range = 11-26), the average self-rated health score (1 = excellent, 5 = poor) was 2.67 (SD = .96, range = 1-5). Participation was achieved using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk; see Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling, 2011) and participants were paid for their participation. MTurk prohibits individuals from taking the survey more than once and MTurk was set to allow only individuals from the United States and Canada to participate.

Instruments

In addition to a background data sheet (which asked date of birth, education level and self-rated health), participants also took the 20-item webbased (MTurk) version of the Ageism Survey (Palmore, 2001) and the 15-item GDS-SF. The Ageism Survey is a 20 item questionnaire that poses 20 statements (e.g., told a joke that pokes fun, denied medical treatment, called an insulting name) that respondents indicate occurred never, once, or more than once. Palmore reports high face validity and internal reliability. The GDS-SF is a 15-item Yes/No scale in which respondents answer questions (e.g., Are you basically satisfied with your life?, Do you feel full of energy? …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Ageism in Us and Canadian Samples
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.