EU Travel and Tourism Industry - A Cluster Analysis of Impact and Competitiveness

By Bulin, Daniel | Global Economic Observer, January 1, 2014 | Go to article overview

EU Travel and Tourism Industry - A Cluster Analysis of Impact and Competitiveness


Bulin, Daniel, Global Economic Observer


(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

1. Introduction

The economic importance of tourism was for many decades underappreciated, but nowadays we discover that the concept of "tourism activity" became "tourism industry". The European Union gives tourism a high importance, which contributes substantially to its economic and social objectives. Regarding the tourism, the EU has as main objective to achieve an optimal balance of tourism activities in member countries. In 2010 the Commission proposed a strategy for boosting European tourism, in order to maximize the potential of this sector. A total of 21 proposals, on the four main directions, are subject of the Commission's strategy on tourism in Europe - "Europe - the world's No 1 tourist destination - a new political framework for tourism in Europe": (1) Stimulate competitiveness in the European tourism sector (Promoting diversification of the supply of tourist services; Developing innovation in the tourism industry; Improving professional skills; Encouraging an extension of the tourist season ; Consolidating the socioeconomic knowledge base for tourism); (2) Promote the development of sustainable, responsible and high-quality tourism ; (3) Consolidate the image and profile of Europe as a collection of sustainable and high-quality tourist destinations; (4) Maximise the potential of EU financial policies and instruments for developing tourism.

This paper proposes an assessment of tourism in the European Union, starting from two types of information: the impact of tourism in the EU economy and the competitiveness of the tourism sector.

Based on statistics provided by the World Travel and Tourism Council and the World Economic Forum, we calculate multiplier coefficient for tourism, the tourism industry efficiency, the balance of payments in international tourism, and finally grouping EU countries based on these variables using cluster analysis. Related to the World Travel and Tourism Council analyses, the direct impact includes employees and the related value added for accommodation, recreation, transportation etc, while the indirect impact measures the supply chain impact, the induced impact measures the impacts of incomes earned directly and indirectly as they are spent in the local economy. Direct, indirect and induced impacts are equal with the total economic impact of tourism (World Travel and Tourism Council, 2013a).

World Economic Forum has calculated since 2008 (next editions were in 2009, 2011, 2013) a tourism competitiveness index. "The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) aims to measure the factors and policies that make it attractive to develop the T&T sector in different countries"('World Economic Forum, 2013). The index includes 14 criteria, on the three main pillars: A

- Regulatory framework (Policy rules and regulations, Environmental sustainability, Safety and security, Health and hygiene, Prioritization of Travel and Tourism);B - Business environment and infrastructure (Air transport infrastructure, Ground transport infrastructure, Tourism infrastructure, Information and Communications Technical infrastructure, Price competitiveness in T&T industry); C

- Human, cultural, and natural resources (Human resources, Affinity for Travel & Tourism, Natural resources, Cultural resources). The paper is structured as follows: literature review, research methodology, results and discussion, conclusions.

2. Literature review

The specialized literature has covered important stages in analyzing the impact and competitiveness of tourism destinations over the last few decades.

The impact of tourism (Sadler, 1975; Liu et al., 1984 Rita, 2000; Dwyer et al., 2004; Ivanov & Webster, 2007) or competitiveness of destinations (Gooroochurn & Sugiyarto, 2005; Kayar & Kozak, 2007; Leung & Bal oglu, 2013) were important directions for assessing the growing importance of tourism in the global economy. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

EU Travel and Tourism Industry - A Cluster Analysis of Impact and Competitiveness
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.