Economic Mechanisms for Managing Food Security in the System "Production-Consumption-Import"

By Rogachev, Aleksey; Mazaeva, Tamara et al. | Asian Social Science, August 2015 | Go to article overview

Economic Mechanisms for Managing Food Security in the System "Production-Consumption-Import"


Rogachev, Aleksey, Mazaeva, Tamara, Egorova, Ekaterina, Asian Social Science


Abstract

Green revolution almost spent its resources, and scientists haven't found the way for the quick increase of potential capabilities of newly bred sorts of grain crops, grain legumes, and cereal crops, of potato, sugar beet, vegetables, and feed crops. Due to impossibility of use of ecological tools, there is a necessity for the search for new ways of providing food security. In this research, economic mechanisms of managing food security in the system "production-consumption-import" are developed. The authors analyze the notion and meaning of economic mechanism, determine the current state of food security of modern Russia in the system "production-consumption-import" in comparison with other countries, and determine problems and perspectives of its increase. As a result of conducted analysis, the authors come to conclusion that current food situation in Russia is characterized with features of chronic lack of food and incapability or lack of wish of their authorities to solve this problem. Socio-economic state of agriculture does not ensure the economic accessibility of food products for all groups of population. As the key economic mechanisms for managing food security, this research offers the formation of growth poles, or economic cores, and creation of agricultural clusters.

Keywords: food security, economic mechanism, manufacture of good products, consumption, consumption norms, food products import

1. Introduction

In the 21st century, the food problem is, without any doubt, the most important, sharp, and topical for all humanity. Despite large progress in the development of agriculture, of river and sea fishing, and food and processing industry which provided humanity with higher level of food products consumption, the problem of food is not fully solved by humanity.

According to the UN, more than 1 billion people on the Earth starve constantly, 13-18 million people die annually of hunger and starvation, and 35 people die every 24 hours as a result of direct or indirect starvation. As to the quantity of casualties, no other catastrophe on the Earth can be compared to starvation. Only over 1983-1985, more people died in the world of starvation than during World Wars I and II combined (Garthwaite et al., 2015).

Uncertainty of food problem can be explained by a range of causes. Firstly, by high rates of population growth on the Earth, which far exceed the global rates of growth of food volumes. While at the beginning of new era, there were around 200-250 million people on the planet, and the first billion was reached 2000 years later, the second billion was reached 100 years later, and the fifth - 20 years later. At present, annual growth of population is estimated to be 90 million people, and, according to the UN data, in 30 years, the population of the planet will reach 8.5 billion, and in 100 years - 14.4 billion people. On the one hand, this aggravates the food problem, and, on the other hand, strengthens serious load on the natural environment, the main components of which are means of production and subjects of labor for agrarian sector of economy (Jacknowitz et al., 2015).

Secondly, reduction of area of cultivable land and fresh water for irrigated agriculture. During the period of agricultural activity - around 10,000 years - 2 billion hectares of land was lost. During recent 300 years, agriculture lost 700 million hectares, with average annual rate of loss constituting 2.5 million hectares; and during recent 50 years, 300 million hectares was lost, with average annual rate of loss of 6 million hectares. Modern real losses of productive lands exceed by 30 times the average historic values and by 2.5 times - the volumes of losses during recent 300 years (He, 2015).

Green revolution almost spent its resources, and scientists haven't found the way for quick increase of potential possibilities of newly bred sorts of grain crops, grain legumes, and cereal crops, potato, sugar beet, vegetables, and feed crops. …

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