On the Validity of Educational Evaluation and Its Construction

By Huang, Xiaoping; Hu, Zhongfeng | Higher Education Studies, August 2015 | Go to article overview

On the Validity of Educational Evaluation and Its Construction


Huang, Xiaoping, Hu, Zhongfeng, Higher Education Studies


Abstract

The main problem of the educational evaluation validity is that it just copies the conceptual framework system of validity from educational measurement to its own conceptual system. The validity conceptual system that fits the need of theory and practice of educational evaluation has not been established yet. According to the inherent attributive character of educational evaluation, this paper constructs eight concepts of validity in educational evaluation: objective validity, construct validity, content validity, cross validity, subject validity, process validity, function validity and result validity, and elaborates its basis and connotation.

Keywords: educational evaluation, validity, construct

1. Introduction

Educational evaluation is a process that making value judgment on educational phenomenon based on certain educational value or objective with viable scientific methods in order to provide evidence for continuous optimizing the education and educational policy-making by collecting and analyzing information systematically (Hu, 2006). Generally, we need to examine the extent that the results of educational evaluation achieve established educational value or target in the practice of educational evaluation, research the realization degree that educational evaluation index system reflecting the educational purpose in concrete evaluation, and study the extent that the evaluation tools and methods specially realize the evaluation effectively on educational objects when collecting all kinds of educational evaluation information. How to control all kinds of error variances that influence the validity of evaluation results to guarantee the internal validity of the evaluation when implementing some evaluation activity; what extent did the results of educational evaluation can popularize to the situation, scope, and field with a larger objects when making education policy, thus to guarantee the external validity of educational evaluation and so on. Basically, the realization degree of all the educational evaluation activities must be evaluated and tested by the validity of educational evaluation, and then judge the realization degree of educational value or objective.

1.1 The Problems Existing in the Validity of Educational Evaluation

1.1.1 Copying the Conceptual Framework System of Validity from Educational Measurement to the Conceptual System of Educational Evaluation Validity

Educational measurement is the feature description of one or more attributes of various objects in education. Its uniqueness is that measurement is a kind of quantitative description, which is using digital system to depict the attributes of educational object. In the conceptual system of educational measurement, the classic definition of validity is "it refers the degree that people desire when they measure the substance" (Cronbach, 1992). Therefore, when study the validity types of education object, researchers often highly emphasize four types of validity: construct validity, internal validity, statistical conclusion validity and external validity. In 90 general, construct validity refers to the degree that the actually measured construct fits the presupposed construct; Internal validity refers to the degree of deterministic relationship between variables; Statistical conclusion validity refers to the degree that conclusion can be explained and reflect things attributes; External validity refers to the degree that the measured results can be popularized to other situations.

But educational evaluation is making judgment on the value or feature of the education object under certain standard. Value can not only be the evaluation object in educational evaluation, such as study the value of some educational object, but also can be the standard of educational evaluation, such as the selection and determination of evaluation standard. Thus, from this perspective, educational evaluation has a certain degree of subjectivity, which is an unity of subjective assessment and objective measurement. …

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