Romanians' Participation to Culture 1

By Pârvu, Oana | Journal of Community Positive Practices, October 1, 2014 | Go to article overview

Romanians' Participation to Culture 1


Pârvu, Oana, Journal of Community Positive Practices


Introduction

The culture of a society is a component of its identity, including values, knowledge and symbols. Vehicle between generations, culture was considered often by researchers closely related to the sustainable development of a society. "Because the process of civilization and culture are inseparable, sustainable development is based on elements of culture (linguistic diversity, theoretical and empirical knowledge, beliefs, representations of the world, material and immaterial heritage, artistic creation, literary, scientific, inventions etc.)" (Moldoveanu M., Mucica D., Vasile V., Ioan-Franc V., Nitulescu V., 2005:13).

A bio-psycho-socio-cultural whole, the individual achieves the state of harmony with oneself and with society, relating himself to landmarks and cultural values that culture offers.

"Culture is a complex and abstract construct that consists of various implicit and explicit elements (Groeschl and Doherty, 2000), that makes it difficult for academics across disciplines to agree on a common description. Over 200 descriptions of culture have been found; however, the most broadly known and used definition in marketing literature is the one specified systematically by Taylor in 1881, who defined culture as a "complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals and law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society" (Lindridge and Dibb, 2003)" (Firat A., Kutucuoglu K, Arikan Saltik I., Tuncel O., 2013: 188).

The phenomena of culture was studied in specialized literature also regarding the behavior of people when they made the selection of cultural products or services or of a kind of cultural activities.

In his work "Distinction, a Social Critique of a Judgement of the Taste" (1984), Pierre Bourdieu underlined the strong relation between cultural consumption and all the factors which influenced it. In this context in his sociological studies, he talked about the cultural behavior emphasizing the involvement of taste, of style and of "habitus" (Bourdieu P., 1984). The concept of "habitus" is explained by Pierre Bourdieu as a relation between social position and people acts. Any symbolic violence begins with building a habitus inside an individual. Habitus includes deep, lasting, unconscious structures taken from family during childhood (primary habitus), transformed in secondary or tertiary habitus) by educational process in schoool and society.

After Pierre Bordieu, habitusul conducts all the cultural behaviour as a history interiorized, as a history transformed in nature.

The importance of culture for individual is underlined by Bordieu explaining that it is a direct relation between the cultural acquisition of an individual and his place and domination in society which he belongs to.

European Cultural Policy

Due to importance of culture for human development and reaching social policy objectives at European level, over time, cultural policy were developed, pursuing knowledge about cultural creations of the member countries, exchange of experience among specialists in this area and preservation of cultural heritage.

Cultural policies' objectives are to increase the social cohesion and contribution between members of a society, at European level, between EU countries, developing the respect for different cultural values and the acceptance of these differences, on the same time. Another objective was to develop and to improve intercultural communication defined as that kind of "communication between people of whom cultural system of perceptions and values are different enough to alter/influence the process of communication between them" (Mircea R, Dragoi V., 2008:39). Cultural policies reduced the obstacles in the process of intercultural communication and encourged this way the exchage of knowledge, experiences and good practices in the culture field.

"Culture lies at the heart of the European project and is the anchor on which the European Union's "unity in diversity" is founded. …

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