Macedonia Rejects Milosevic

By Pettifer, James | The World Today, January 1999 | Go to article overview

Macedonia Rejects Milosevic


Pettifer, James, The World Today


The war in Kosovo has given neighbouring Macedonia, with its twentyfive percent Albanian minority, a key role in the southern Balkan crisis. Parliamentary elections last October/November have resulted in the overthrow of the Social Democrat led coalition of Branko Crvenkovski, which contained many pro-Serb and pro-Yugoslav politicians. There was a major victory for the nationalist Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (VMRO DPHME) - which has close links to Bulgaria and its coalition allies. They won sixty-two of the one hundred and twenty parliamentary seats. The coalition of Albanian parties won twenty-four seats, and has been invited to fill five government ministries.

UNLIKE THE CORRUPT ELECTION IN 19941, where a much rewritten Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) report 'approving' the vote was derided by most independent observers, this poll was seen as generally free and fair by all participants.

For seven years western government and ambassadors in Skopje have given strong backing to the Social Democrat leaders, seeing President Kiro Gligorov and his ex-Belgrade politicians as a force for stability. But this 'stability' greatly aided Serbia and President Slobodan Milosevic.

During UN sanctions against the former republic of Yugoslavia, massive and widespread sanctions busting was tolerated, ostensibly to ensure the survival of Macedonia. In practice this gave major support to Serbian interests. In socialist Yugoslavia, Serbia was much the largest trade partner for Macedonia, taking over sixty percent of its exports. Serbs control many of the large economic enterprises in Macedonia. Many Macedonians only adopted their identity in the old Yugoslavia for career reasons, having been born pre-1939, when Vardar Macedonia was part of south Serbia. Organised crime from Serbia operates freely in Macedonia.2

DESTABILISING

But the destabilisation of Macedonia through ethnic conflict has still developed, with the Albanians having a radical and often nationalist leadership under Kosovo-educated Arben Xhaferi. The west has backed the Skopje government in the imprisonment of the mayors of Tetovo and Gostivar - ethnic Albanian towns in the west - for alleged separatist activity.3

For two years there have been bombings, arms seizures and deaths in the western, Albanian-dominated areas. The Kosovo Liberation Army has begun to establish a presence there, using Macedonia as a supply and logistics base.

The electorate has now decisively rejected this illusory stability, enforced by the manipulated 1994 election, and extensive corruption among the old governing elite. With over thirty percent unemployment, the GDP of the second poorest country in Europe, and the collapse of many public services, voters, particularly the young, chose jobs, change, the democratisation of the state, a genuine free press, and the reform of the communist dominated Ministry of the Interior.4

VMRO has promised to create thousands of new jobs, and to attract massive foreign investment. The position of the European Union (EU) and the United States will be critical to the success of these plans, as Macedonia has very serious economic and fiscal problems, and the stability of the economy and currency depends largely on external support.

The new government will pose many problems for the EU, although it appears to have a potentially better relationship with the US. Vasil Tupurkovski, leader of the minor coalition partner - the Democratic Alliance - has spent time in America. France and Britain, in particular, were strong backers of the old Gligorov political system, as a covert pro-Serb, pro-Yugoslav force in the region.

America has tended to be critical of this policy, and has tried to assist the Albanians over their human rights difficulties. Many Skopje politicians of all parties believe it is still the long term aim of both France and the UK, and Russia, to reintegrate Macedonia with the third Yugoslavia (FRY), as far as possible, perhaps even in a new federation. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Macedonia Rejects Milosevic
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.