Political Behavior of Tirana Electorate

By Lami, Roland | Italian Sociological Review, May 1, 2015 | Go to article overview

Political Behavior of Tirana Electorate


Lami, Roland, Italian Sociological Review


Abstract

In this study, ideological confusion is focuses mainly on the interdependence created between the "deeply-social" factors of and political discourse. This analysis focuses on the empirical investigation regarding the perception of Tirana electorate for the relation between the political party structure and ideology, and between electorate and ideology. Based on the survey data, it results that very few people match the profile of a person who can make the distinction between principles of the Left and the Right. The majority of respondents fail to make this distinction or make this distinction but they vote pragmatically. Studies conducted in many countries with consolidated democracy show that both alternatives are possible. So there are several theories explaining the voting behavior, which can help us to understand the survey results and possible factors which affect this voting behavior.

Keywords: ideology, political parties, voting behavior, pragmatist, values.

1. Introduction

The central idea of this study is concern with the crisis of representation in Albania, which stems mainly from the fact that neither of the two main parties fails to build its and electorate ideological identity (substantive) who should represent. Thus, each of the political forces in their discourse time to time use the right and lefts element elements, as a result of internal and external factors.

Neoliberal reform spirit, especially at the first decade after the change of system and governments Euro-Atlantic integration processes in the second decade, have "alienated" citizen, making even more difficult for political parties the articulation and representation of different social grops. In this context, much less representative of special interest political parties become less identified social groups with political parties. On the other hand, much less reach groups to identify the harder it is to represent the needs and demands by political parties. This vicious circle, has created fluidity of party identities and social groups in years, therefore the relationship between them has been inconsistent and unclear.

Despite that a group of scholars belonging constructivist approach, defend the view that "common interest" of a social group does not exist aprior, but it can be constructed by discursive approach, therefore politically, this perspective is criticized and estimated as insufficient to explain the phenomenon, especally in the Albanian context. Representatives of structural - functionalist school who defend the view that if the dynamism of social structure does not create opportunities for the creation of sustainable social identities, as a result of the stage of development, then the parties are obliged to refer to "the demos" as an electoral category and not social groups that characterize it for the pragmatic reason. Precisely, this approach, which sees the problem in the structuring society way and not to political discourse, constitutes the main runway in this study.

This approach, link the different levels of social reality, such as: structural dynamics of social groups, economic reform progress, the recommendations of the international community, the mediatization of politics, lack of elites with a clear ideological structuring and the effects of globalization.

2. Literature Review

Many political scientists argue that dualism left/right is historical, logical and natural. Rene Remond (1967) highlights the permanent presence of these trends in the political life. Electoral sociology findings confirm the conclusions of the historical analysis of Frederic Bon (1943), who made the balance of electoral developments in France and as a result showed the dualistic structure deeply embedded in the voters' behavior.

In this perspective, dualism is considered as part of citizen attitudes. "This is confirmed by the numerous surveys where most of the respondents prefer to be identified politically in view of these criteria. …

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