Models for Assessing Art Performance (MAAP): A K-12 Project

By Dorn, Charles M. | Studies in Art Education, July 1, 2003 | Go to article overview

Models for Assessing Art Performance (MAAP): A K-12 Project


Dorn, Charles M., Studies in Art Education


There is an increased pressure by school administrators and state Departments of Education to regulate how art teachers assess K-12 student art performances. Due to the lack of art assessment tests, opportunities for training in art assessment and information on authentic means of assessment, it was proposed that a cooperative effort by three university art education faculties at Florida State, Purdue, and Northern Illinois Universities and four U.S. school districts in Florida, Indiana, and Illinois undertake the research and development of pre-K-12 art assessment models that could be replicated in the nation's schools. This effort was implemented through three major activities: 1) teacher training and assessment development institutes, 2) applied assessment and technological research in school art classrooms, and 3) dissemination of the results of research to the art teaching profession. Charles Dorn from Florida State University, Bob Sabol from Purdue University, and Stan Madeja from Northern Illinois University conducted the training and supervised the research in the 11 school districts in Florida, Indiana, and Illinois. The Models for Assessing Art Performance (MAAP) project, which emphasized teaching, research and service, relates directly to the mission of all three teacher education institutions and to the needs of the school districts in meeting the demands set by national and state Goals 2000 achievement standards.

The Need for Reform

While school reformers see testing as a significant part of the reform effort, more effort needs to be expended on answering the question of how such testing efforts relate to what teachers teach. Cusic (1994) observed that teachers in school reform should accept personal interpretation and choice as central to their professionalism. As quasi-autonomous individuals, they teach in their classrooms in an independent and self-reliant manner and most often behave as individuals and not as a collective force. Usually, teachers do not feel free to join or not join the reform effort unless as they are directed to do so by state mandated compliance. If, as Cusic noted, teachers are the deciding element in school reform he felt they should feel free to join or not join in the reform effort and further to be able to regulate themselves and set their own policies and standards. The fear of regulators and reformers is, however, that granting such freedom will cause teachers to question the reforms and even argue for increased individual rights and privileges rather than reform their teaching and, therefore, improve learning. Given a choice, reformers would rather mandate teacher compliance and, eventually, also mandate the means for assessment.

Testing as Reform

Although the federal and most state governments are currently committed to testing all elementary and secondary students, a limited number of standardized visual arts tests in addition to the NAEP test are available for teachers or school districts to use. Also, the use of paper-and-pencil, true-false, and multiple choice tests and even essay type responses rarely provide adequate estimates of what students learn in most K-12 school art programs where studio-based activity is the primary means of instruction. What the educational reformers would like to see is a single art test that can measure what students know and are able to do in all of the nation's art programs. No such tests are available due to the lack of adequate means to quantify expressive activity and the unwillingness of all the nation's art teachers to teach art in the same way.

The Art Teacher's Role in Reform

For effective art learning we have to answer the question of why we believe we can embarrass teachers and school administrators into higher levels of professional performance through the imposition of a single set of predetermined educational standards (Eisner, 1992). Is there any reason, Eisner asked, why we should expect future educational policy reforms to have any greater influence than those of the past? …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Models for Assessing Art Performance (MAAP): A K-12 Project
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    New feature

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have dyslexia, and in an effort to make Questia easier to use for those people, we have added a new choice of font to the Reader. That font is called OpenDyslexic, and has been designed to help with some of the symptoms of dyslexia. For more information on this font, please visit OpenDyslexic.org.

    To use OpenDyslexic, choose it from the Typeface list in Font settings.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.