Bakunin Model of Anarchism and Militancy in Swat, Pakistan

By Khurshaid; Khan, Zafar et al. | Pakistan Journal of Criminology, January 2015 | Go to article overview

Bakunin Model of Anarchism and Militancy in Swat, Pakistan


Khurshaid, Khan, Zafar, Gul, Saima, Sanauddin, Noor, Pakistan Journal of Criminology


War against terrorism is a war fought against Islamic militants, who have been creating anarchy for sake of getting strategic benefits and winning ultimate victory. The stories of violence in the war, strengthen the notion that anarchy is one of the most suitable tools for militants in this regard. As the very name 'war on terrorism' makes it clear that it is a conflict in which the phenomena of terrorism is its integral part. In asymmetrical warfare killings, kidnapping, targeting government officials and institutions, the spread of terror and common destruction is something natural. The ongoing war on terror is such a phenomenon. The non-state actors have been using guerrilla tactics which inflict heavy losses to public lives and property. Suicide bombings are lethal weapons in this regard. The bombing not only causing irreparable damage and destruction but also create an environment of panic and anarchy.

Militancy in Pakistan has been damaging the nation more than any other. More than 35,000 (Haider, 2011: June 03) people have lost their lives and millions of people have been displaced from their homes. The militant anarchy caused huge economic losses as well. According to an estimate, some $ 68 billion is the total cost of the war for economically impoverished Pakistan (Ahmad, 2011: June 10, 08-10). Major militant uprisings in North West of the country derailed the routine life of the people. The terrorists adopted the following tactics which are the acts qualifying the basic tenets of anarchism (Taylor, 2012, August 18).

i Killing all those who are potential or open threat to them

ii) Kidnapping the rich for sake of ransom to generate money,

iii) Targeting politicians to pressurize and deter them,

iv) Keeping close liaison and connections with criminals of the society and using them for their organizational objectives, and

v) They are helping their supporters to groom and flourish them.

This study will trace a relationship between anarchism and terrorism. After analyzing the events of terrorism it could be established that how anarchism, though a political philosophy, fits in the scheme of the analysis to establish closer relationship with the present wave of terrorist events. Before going into detail, it is important to see the basic tenets of anarchism.

Theoretical Framework

Anarchism is a mechanism and philosophy of carnage and destruction which can be defined as the violent wave of movements against the union and integrity of a society, and against the top authority and respect of a state (Hoffman, 2010: 36). Anarchism has resulted into creation of environment of oppression, tears and pain during the 20th century in various societies. It should be analyzed multi-dimensionally due to the reality that it is a notion defining different political ideologies, philosophies and social movements which defend to overthrow every types of the social hierarchy and political organization.

Bediüzzaman- a Sunni Muslim Theologian and who wrote a commentary on Quran- said that 'this century has caused the total brutality of all of the previous centuries only in one-time' (Bahar: 2006). While the twentieth century was going out, everyone hoped that the coming century and millennium would herald peace and prosperity for the whole world. But it did not occur. In the wake of attacks on Twin towers just at the start of the century, violence and terror became the mostly common issue in the world's agenda. After that, debate broke out over the link of terror and violence with the Islam, which contains peace and love at its core teachings (Haddad & Khashan, 2002: 817). The military attacks of USA, in coalition with some other western countries, on Afghanistan and Iraq caused new developments and discussions in the field of international politics.

Anarchy is a term, the relevance of which is found with the meaning of common panic, fear and confusion. The term has its own background in a philosophy, known as anarchism. …

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