Environment of Crimes and Violence at Community Level and Its Exclusionary Effects on Children

By Ullah, Asad; Shah, Mussawar et al. | Pakistan Journal of Criminology, July-December 2014 | Go to article overview

Environment of Crimes and Violence at Community Level and Its Exclusionary Effects on Children


Ullah, Asad, Shah, Mussawar, Shafi, Bushra, Pakistan Journal of Criminology


(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

Introduction

The Term Poverty As A Strong Ingredient of shaping human life embodies economic nature of disadvantage, grounded in application of a static set of indicators such as lack of income. (Department of Social Security, 1999). Understanding the concept of social exclusion helps to analyze the dynamic process that causes the conditions of disadvantage in broader social and economic context (Commins, 2004). It emphasizes on the process of causing detachment of individuals or groups from the bulk and caters for a broader range of competences that people enjoy or fail to enjoy for a more productive life. Social exclusion is a condition, when a number of people suffer from a combination of linked problems like unemployment, low skills, low income, poor housing, high crime environment, poor health and family breakdown with other combined factors to trap individuals/areas in a spiral of disadvantage (SEU, 1997; and DSS, 1999). It is associated to the process of shutting out from one of social, economic, political and cultural system, necessary for integrating individuals in a society, usually shaped after denial to social relations, customs, where majority participates or sometime with physical incapability to participate as individual's un-controlling inabilities or lacking the decision power and integration to participate (Walker and Walker, 1997; and Gordon et al., 2000).

The phenomena of social exclusion could easily be explained through two major facets i.e. denial to participate (as external) and inability to participate (as internal). The problem of exclusion could not be confined to old people; rather it further aggravates through disadvantage, especially in children. It is an outcome of dysfunctional institution whereby a person is forced to indecent situation, with the only solution left over is the abundance of resources along with provision of rights for properly addressing and functioning of human rights (Marsh et al., 1999).

SEU (1998) report made it evident that people in deep exclusion are forced to leave home or released from prison and are faced with severe mental and physical illnesses. The report found such people associated with addicts and habitual criminals. These people were addicted to drugs; they were more likely to have remained unemployed, absentee, with convicted family member(s) of criminal offences, teenage father and HIV positive.

Youth violence represents a significant troubling behavioral outcome of living in poverty in the United States. Youth ages 12-17 are more likely to be victims of violent crime than adults. For black youth in 1994 the victimization rate was 136 per 1000 as compared to 118 per 1000 for white youth (Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 1997). Stressful events, individual beliefs, and economic disadvantage have been noted to increase the risk for aggression among urban children. In a study of almost 2,000 elementary school children over a two-year period (Guerra et al., 1995), life stress and neighborhood violence stress as well as beliefs of approving of aggression were related to low economic status. These factors predicted aggression in the total population as did low socio-economic status, cultural differences were noted among whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics.

Clear (2007) found that child socialization is function of supervision from parents, discipline and parent child relationship. Negligence in child care and inappropriate family environment are associated with crimes and social exclusion in children. Disadvantage of community in form of poverty and crimes, make the living area inappropriate to raise children. Such disadvantages amplify family's problems and support social exclusion.

Bradshaw et al. (2006) explained importance of fear of crimes and victimization in social exclusion of children. The two pronged approach, introduced by authors, focuses on securing child's rights during his childhood and then concentrating for their future life chances and developmental outcomes. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Environment of Crimes and Violence at Community Level and Its Exclusionary Effects on Children
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.