Female Labor Supply and Fertility in Iran: A Comparison between Developed, Semi Developed and Less Developed Regions

By Sefiddashti, Sara Emamgholipour; Rad, Enayatollah Homaie et al. | Iranian Journal of Public Health, February 2016 | Go to article overview

Female Labor Supply and Fertility in Iran: A Comparison between Developed, Semi Developed and Less Developed Regions


Sefiddashti, Sara Emamgholipour, Rad, Enayatollah Homaie, Arab, Mohamad, Bordbar, Shima, Iranian Journal of Public Health


(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

Introduction

Changing the gender composition in labor supply is one of the most fundamental changes in the work in the last century. The empirical literature on determinants of female labor force participation rate is well-documented (1). United States and western European countries had more rates of female labor supply rather than less developed countries, but some developing countries had rapid growth in female labor supply. For example, female labor supply has increased from 21.8% in 1991 to 31.9% in 2009 in Iran. It increased from 56.7% in 1991 to 58.4% in the 2009 United States. Despite these changes, in some countries the rate of female labor participation remains very low. For example, in Iraq this rate was only 14% in 2012(2).

Female workers are known as substitutes for male workers in the labor market. Increasing in male labor supply will decrease female labor supply (3). Categorizing the factors which affects female labor supply has been shown that three major features affects female labor supply: Cultural factors, socioeconomic factors and health factors. These features may have opposite or negative effects. For example, urbanization as a determinant of female labor supply is influenced by economic, social and cultural effects (4). Cultural effects cause that urbanization raises female labor supply, but an economic factor like agricultural effect has a negative effect (5, 6). Education is another variable, which affects female labor supply. In agricultural sector, education may decrease female labor supply, but in services sectors, it increases female labor supply. In economic viewpoint, in one hand, education may increase income and hinder sending women to work and it may lead to increase female labor supply because of increasing in the skilled women(1, 5). Some variables like fertility and aging are categorized as health variables. Having more children reduces the ability of working women. This is because the women must stay at home and take care of their children so they have not enough time for working (7). Aging is another factor, which affects female labor supply. The ability of women to work will decrease at higher age groups. Retirement is another reason to decrease the female labor supply at higher ages. Living alone also increases the probability of working too. This is a social variable (8). A divorced woman may fall in some bad conditions. She must live with her parents or children or alone. A widowed woman has such conditions; however, she can use her husband's retirement salary. If these women face with improper socioeconomic conditions, they have work to get money, so the female labor supply will increase (9, 10). Wage is another variable, which affects female labor supply. Increasing wages will stimulate unemployed and householder women to find jobs and work. Migration also affects female labor supply (5).

The numerous studies have examined the determinants of female labor supply. Because of cultural, socioeconomic and health factors, the effects of the variables on female labor supply vary among different regions. In this study, we compare the effects of the effective variables in less-developed and developed provinces of Iran.

Methods

Based on descriptive and analytical study in 2012, we divided the provinces of Iran into 3 regions: less-developed, semi-developed and developed provinces. For less-developed provinces including Sistan and Baluchestan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Kordestan, Bushehr, Hormozgan, Lorestan, Ilam, Kohkilooye and Boirahmad, and South Khorasan, we used 78743 data. For developed provinces including Tehran and Alborz, we used 115492. These 2 provinces account for near 15% of Iran's population, so we did not add other industrialized provinces in this region. Finally, the semi-developed provinces include Fars, Mazandaran, Gilan, Azerbaijan-Qarbi, Khouzestan, Kerman and Khorasan-Razavi. The total observations for these provinces were 199163. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Female Labor Supply and Fertility in Iran: A Comparison between Developed, Semi Developed and Less Developed Regions
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.