Total Communication and Bi-Bi

By Moores, Donald F. | American Annals of the Deaf, March 1999 | Go to article overview

Total Communication and Bi-Bi


Moores, Donald F., American Annals of the Deaf


Recently, I have observed in several classrooms and some different schools that the line between bilingual-bicultural (Bi-Bi) programs and total communication (TC) programs has become blurred. Although the stated communication philosophy may vary, in reality there may be more variation within any school than across schools. In fact, both inside the classroom and outside, it is sometimes difficult to know which of the two approaches is being used. In both settings, I have observed teachers and children signing with voice and without voice. I have also observed sign communication following English word order as well as communication that was clearly ASL. Some people apparently believe that if they sign without voice, then it is by definition ASL, even if they include invented signs to indicate English tense, number, adverbs, articles, the verb to be, and selected pronouns such as he, she, and it. There are other examples, as well. I have observed oral classes and cued speech classes where most or all of the childto-child communication, not to mention teacher-to-child communication, has been through some form of sign. However, at this time I want to concentrate on Bi-Bi and TC programs.

Of course, there are differences. From my observations, deaf teachers tend to use ASL more and code-switch more effectively from English to ASL. However, there are many exceptions to this. There are many deaf teachers who are not experienced, skilled signers, and there are many hearing teachers who are. There are also some schools-in my observations a few schools-that consistently use ASL exclusively for through-the-air communication. Most seem to function along a continuum from ASL to English, with great in-school variation.

The trend toward incorporating ASL within total communication programs has existed for almost three decades. In fact, Roy Holcomb, who led the movement toward total communication, was clear in his position that total communication included all aspects, all modes and systemsspeech, simultaneous speech, and signs (Sim-Com), finger spelling, gestures, reading and writing. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Total Communication and Bi-Bi
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.