Child-Rearing Practices toward Children with Hemophilia: The Relative Importance of Clinical Characteristics and Parental Emotional Reactions

By Banis, S.; Suurmeijer, Th P. B. M. et al. | Family Relations, April 1999 | Go to article overview

Child-Rearing Practices toward Children with Hemophilia: The Relative Importance of Clinical Characteristics and Parental Emotional Reactions


Banis, S., Suurmeijer, Th P. B. M., van Peer, D. R., Family Relations


This study addresses the relative importance of clinical characteristics of the child and parental emotional reactions, to childrearing practices towards children who suffer from hemophilia. The variables were assessed in a Dutch sample of 108 zero-totwelve-year-old boys with hemophilia and their mothers. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses with clinical characteristics and emotional reactions as independent variables and child-rearing practices as respective dependent variables Mother's emotional reactions appeared to have a stronger influence on child-rearing uncertainty and overprotection than clinical characteristics of the son.

Key Words: appraisal, child-rearing, chronic illness, hemophilia.

Between 10% and 20% of children suffer from chronic illness (Midence, 1994). Chronic illnesses last for a long time and are often incurable. Patients often need to be treated and to maintain lifelong contacts with physicians and social workers. The illness and its treatment are a burden for chronically ill children and make a big appeal to their adaptability. However, the chronic illness of a child not only influences the functioning of the child, it also influences the functioning of the family (Bruhn, 1977; Kazak, 1989; Schwenk & Hughes 1983; Shapiro, 1983). Parental child-rearing behavior may be especially influenced by the child's chronic illness.

From the moment of diagnosis, parents of a child with a chronic illness may feel forced to reflect on their child-rearing practices quite consciously (Van Peer, 1991). Questions arise about current and future limits and possibilities for their child, about the way they should treat their child and about pedagogic goals which may need adjustment. Answers to these questions are not easily found, because the situation differs from the normal situations, rendering known strategies inadequate. This can lead to child-rearing uncertainty. Parents of children with asthma or mental retardation, for example, are uncertain about the way they should handle their child (Gresnigt & Gresnigt-Strengers, 1973; Van Peer & De Vries, 1986).

The physical vulnerability of the child may especially cause uncertainty in the parents. On the one hand, parents may tend to forbid certain activities in their efforts to protect their child against accidents which could lead to physical harm. On the other hand, they want to enable their child to explore the world, so that maximum development can occur. Parents have to balance these two imperatives. Failure in this respect may be one explanation for the fact that parents of chronically ill children show overprotective behavior more often and impose more behavioral restrictions on their child, than parents of healthy children (Bos, 1977; Gustafsson, Kjellman, Ludvigsson, & Cederblad, as cited in Eiser, 1990; Suurmeijer, 1980).

In brief, parents of chronically ill children, as a group, are more likely to experience pedagogic problems than parents of healthy children. However, considerable individual differences exist in response to the child's chronic illness (Eiser, 1993; Garrison & McQuiston, 1989; Kazak,1989; Schwenk & Hughes, 1983; Shapiro, 1983). For theoretical and practical (counseling) reasons investigation of explanatory factors is necessary. The traditional biomedical model tries to explain individual differences in terms of disease parameters, like diagnosis or severity within an illness. It neglects subjective factors, like the meaning of the disease to those involved. However, several researchers found that not so much the objective situation but especially the subjective meaning the parents attached to the illness, influenced their reaction to the chronic disease of their child (Athreya & McCormick, 1987; Eiser, 1993; Suurmeijer, 1980; Van Peer & De Vries, 1986).

This study addresses the relative importance of clinical characteristics of the child and parental emotional reactions to childrearing practices towards children with hemophilia. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Child-Rearing Practices toward Children with Hemophilia: The Relative Importance of Clinical Characteristics and Parental Emotional Reactions
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.