Listening to Classical Music Results in a Positive Correlation between Spatial Reasoning and Mindfulness

By Bell, Taunjah P.; McIntyre, Katharine A. et al. | Psychomusicology, July 1, 2016 | Go to article overview

Listening to Classical Music Results in a Positive Correlation between Spatial Reasoning and Mindfulness


Bell, Taunjah P., McIntyre, Katharine A., Hadley, Rosamary, Psychomusicology


Music, an orderly arrangement of sound consisting of melody, harmony, rhythm, tone, and pitch, has been used to impact mental processes and influence physical conditions for centuries (Gick, 2011; Sinex, Guzik, Li, & Henderson Sabes, 2003). Responses to musical stimuli vary and are subject to previous experiences and sociocultural influences (Peretz, 2006). Thus, music has a very personal meaning and may elicit an individual reaction from each listener. Music also may have either a calming or stimulating effect depending on the tempo (fast or slow) or genre (classical music and other types; Koelsch & Siebel, 2005; Patel, 2003). I the present study, classical music is defined as music written in the European tradition during a period lasting approximately from 1750 to 1830, when forms such as the symphony, concerto, and sonata were standardized. This music genre is often contrasted with baroque (c. 1600-1750) and romantic (c. 1804-1910) music eras and includes composers such as Antonio Vivaldi, Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven. Classical music along with other music types has been used as adjunct therapeutic interventions in a variety of practical settings. Some professionals define music therapy as the controlled use of music, its elements, and its effects on human beings to produce changes in physiology, behavior, thoughts, and emotions or to support the physiological, psychological, and emotional integration of the individual during treatment of an illness or disability (Guzzetta, 1989; Maranto, 1991; Munro & Mount, 1978; Wigram, Pedersen, & Ole Bonde, 2002). Music therapists, working in community mental health centers, medical hospitals, psychiatric institutions, schools, nursing homes, and correctional facilities as well as other settings (Silverman, 2015; Thaut, 2000), are trained to assess cognitive skills, physical health, emotional well-being, social functioning, and communication abilities through responses to musical stimuli. These skilled professionals also are trained to design music interventions for individuals and groups based on client (children, adolescents, adults, and elders) needs as well as follow up progress (Thaut, 2005; Wheeler, 2015).

Spatial reasoning involves mentally maintaining and transforming mental images in the absence of a physical representation of the actual figure, object, pattern, or structure. The ability to engage in spatial reasoning by mentally manipulating objects or physically navigating through space has wide implications in many academic and professional disciplines as well social and recreational activities. The spatial ability to mentally rotate objects is required for performing tasks (such as playing chess, computing mathematical equations, and solving engineering problems) that recruit executive (higher-order) brain functions (Goodwin & Johnson-Laird, 2005; Johnson, 2008). Spatial reasoning accounts for an essential part of the thinking process of mathematicians, computer scientists, engineers, architects, designers, artists, sculptors, and inventors because they need to understand and interpret qualitative information in graphs and models in order to gain critical understanding of the problems at hand.

The psychological construct mindfulness has received a great deal of attention over the past several decades. The concept of mindfulness has roots in Buddhist and other contemplative traditions where conscious attention and nonjudgmental awareness are actively cultivated (Brown & Ryan, 2003; Siegel, 2007a, 2007b). It is most commonly defined as the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present moment without viewing the situation as good or bad (Kabat-Zinn, 1990, 2003, 2004). Because the original purpose of mindfulness was to alleviate suffering and foster compassion, this meditation technique has been used successfully in medical and clinical practice (Kabat- Zinn, 2005; Santorelli, 1999). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Listening to Classical Music Results in a Positive Correlation between Spatial Reasoning and Mindfulness
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.