Comparison between Kuwaiti and Egyptian Teachers in Type A Behavior and Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Cultural Study

By Al-Mashaan, Owied S. | Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, January 1, 2003 | Go to article overview

Comparison between Kuwaiti and Egyptian Teachers in Type A Behavior and Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Cultural Study


Al-Mashaan, Owied S., Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal


This study investigates the differences between males and females on the one hand, and between Egyptian and Kuwaiti teachers on the other. It also aims to examine the correlation between Type A behavior and job satisfaction. The sample consists of 406 teachers (109 females and 279 males; 253 Kuwaiti, 153 Egyptian). Tools used in this study are: Scales of Type A behavior (Abdel-Khalek & Chukry, 1991), job satisfaction (Cooper, Sloan, & Williams, 1998). Results reveal that there are no significant differences between males and females in Type A behavior, however there are significant differences between males and females in job satisfaction, organization structure, and satisfaction of organizational process. Results also reveal a significant difference between Kuwaiti and Egyptian teachers in the research variables. In addition to the above, results indicate significant positive correlations between Type A behavior and job satisfaction.

Coronary heart disease is considered as one of the chief factors responsible for an increasing number of deaths, especially in developing countries (Al-Khader, 1999). This trend is more prevalent among blue-collar workers and professionals. Recent research generally supports this idea. (Byrne & Reinhart, 1989). Several studies have shown the possibility of using Type A behavior as a predictor or indicator for coronary heart disease (Lichtenstein, Pedersen, & Plomin, 1989). There are numerous psychological characteristics for high rate patients on Type A behavior scales.

An examination of the psychological literature shows that the Type A behavior has three main components, which are: 1 - Competitiveness and achievement striving, 2 - Impatience and time urgency, and 3 - Hostility and aggressiveness.

Type A behavior has been defined as an active and complex emotion which includes behavioral aptitudes such as: muscle tension, excitation, quick speech and concentration, an accelerated rate of activities and emotional responses such as excitement or aggressive infuriation, and the increase of probability of anger (Rosenman, 1990). Studies have proved that individuals with Type A behavior show good quality in work performance, and that they are more successful and have more professional performance compared with Type B individuals (Helmreich, Spence, & Pred, 1988; Wright, 1988). Finally, individuals with Type A behavior excel those of Type B behavior in jobs including miscellaneous tasks (Lee & Gillen, 1989; Nahavandi, Mizzi, & Malekzadeh, 1992).

Individuals with Type A behavior share the same features, including vigorous competitiveness, intrepidity, ambition, courage, need to achieve, excessive stimulation, feeling of time stress and its urgency, anger, aggression, hostility, impatience, instability, and the capability of performing several activities at the same time. All these features might lead to coronary heart disease. Numerous studies have concluded that the characteristics of persons with a high degree of Type A reflect on their job performance. Their desire to be - and their insistence on being - dominant are the most significant motives, which distinguish them from others. Furthermore, it is unlikely that they would delegate their authorities; rather they are always willing to take over the duties of others, even if their work colleagues are highly competent. This is why they continually complain about their increased workload - thus they engage in two contradictory activities (Hasan, 1998; Smith & Rhodewalt, 1986; Strube & Werner, 1985).

Recent studies (Adams & Jax, 1997) indicate that Type A behavior can be categorized into two major factors, namely achievement striving, and impatience and irritability. When work is free from challenge, then little effort is required to be exerted by Type A behavior in performing the work. But when work is challenging, then they exert a great deal of energy. Studies by Lee and Gillen (1989) and Jamal (1985) revealed that Type A behavior individuals are distinctive in their desire for achievement, feeling of time pressure and in conducting a lot of activities at one time, however, the amount of work achieved by them is not more than that achieved by Type B behavior. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Comparison between Kuwaiti and Egyptian Teachers in Type A Behavior and Job Satisfaction: A Cross-Cultural Study
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.