Russian Method of Training in Crafts: Forming Professional Education in Russia (the Second Half of XIX - the Beginning of the 20th Century)

By Saifullova, Razilia R.; Krapotkina, Irina E. | Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, January 1, 2016 | Go to article overview

Russian Method of Training in Crafts: Forming Professional Education in Russia (the Second Half of XIX - the Beginning of the 20th Century)


Saifullova, Razilia R., Krapotkina, Irina E., Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict


INTRODUCTION

Developing system of innovative vocational training is directed to training the highly skilled workers providing positive changes in area of professional activity, and finally in economy and the social sphere of Russia. Finding of an optimum combination between basic professional education and its practice-oriented component was always relevant [1]. Training the specialist having broad fundamental knowledge and professional competences allowing to use them in the professional activity during creating new products, materials - one of the problems causing discussions in the academic environment and among employers [2].

The historical experience comprehensive analysis of developing vocational training is necessary for the successful problem resolution. Therefore reconsideration of the available historical experience is of particular importance.

METHODS

Authors used special and historical research methods. The synchronistic method has allowed establishing the general signs for the uniform processes of forming craft education proceeding in various cities and regions. The problem and chronological method is applied in the analysis of the legislative base regulating activity of educational institutions of professional education system.

RESULTS

Industrial revolution and the begun industrialization in the second half of the 19th century promoted emergence of new types of educational institutions. In 1883 in case of Scientific committee of the Ministry of National Education the Department on Technical and Professional Education was founded. On March 7, 1888 Alexander III approved Regulations on industrial schools. The Ministries of Public Education, finance, internal affairs and state-owned properties have determined counties and provinces where first of all technical and professional educational institutions were necessary [3]. According to the document, in Russia middle and primary technical schools, craft schools began to be established.

Entering the middle technical schools required the certificate of the 5 classes training in a middle educational institution; in primary - the certificate of city, district or two-class rural school; in craft - the certificate on graduating from primary, parish or city parish school. Middle technical schools trained in such specialties as mechanical, chemical, construction, agricultural, mining; primary - construction, mechanical, chemical; craft - mechanical (on handling wood and metal). Qualification of the graduate of middle technical schools were - the technician, the assistant to the engineer; primary - the head of workers in industrial institutions; vocational schools gave skills training to acceptances of a certain production.

When opening technical schools considerable financial resources were necessary, shortage of specialists and teachers was felt. In 1895 trustees of educational districts began to open evening and Sunday schools in special subjects, the special attention were paid to drawing and painting. Nicholas II's decree in case of the Kazan teacher's institute has founded on January 29, 1896 a position of the manual work teacher for education and training competent heads of manual work [4, page 10].

In the nineties of the 19th century in Russia process of creating organizations of professional education was legally regulated. The organization of teaching and educational process in vocational schools was defined by "A provision on primary craft schools" (1889), "A provision on schools of craft students" (1893), school charters. These documents became the legal framework of developing craft education in Russia, determined the purpose of schools, specifics and needs of the region were considered. Within 3 years students got primary education, studied craft acceptances and skills. Later the fourth (practical) class has been entered, students began to do practical training, fixing craft skills.

In 1897 in the Kazan educational district the Kazan industrial school was founded (the joint middle chemical and primary with three specialties: mechanical, chemical and construction), Saratov joint mechanic-and-chemical and technical school, the Nizhny Novgorod mechanical school, in 1901 - Vyatka agricultural technical school. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited article

Russian Method of Training in Crafts: Forming Professional Education in Russia (the Second Half of XIX - the Beginning of the 20th Century)
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this article
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.