Women in Hazardous Works: Assessment from the Standpoint of Feminism (the Example of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia))

By Shakirova, Alla Yu; Petrova, Rasilya G. et al. | Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, January 1, 2016 | Go to article overview

Women in Hazardous Works: Assessment from the Standpoint of Feminism (the Example of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia))


Shakirova, Alla Yu, Petrova, Rasilya G., Kaveev, Timur N., Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict


INTRODUCTION

Medical, psychological, sociological scientific works are devoted to research of the population health, identification of the factors influencing life quality and decrease in health of various age groups in the different countries. For example, in the research by Walker A. E. published in 2007, the interrelation of life quality / psychological distress and chronic diseases caused by demographic is revealed and it is social - economic living conditions of the Australian population of 20 years old and senior (Walker A. E., 2007, p.202). Research by Nazarova I.B. is devoted to influence of production factors on health of the working Russians. (Nazarova I.B., 2007, p. 339). The ratio of the economic status and health of the Indian population is described in research of 2010 (Multi-Morbidit, 2015). In 2013 the group of authors published results of chronic diseases influence extent on a self-assessment of health and life quality of elderly citizens of Ireland (McDaid O, Hanly MJ, Richardson K, et al., 2013). The factors influencing content of the gender equality principle and positive gender discrimination, standard regulation of female and male labor in Russia employment of women on "harmful productions" are considered in the collective monograph of 2015 (Lushnikov A.M., Lushnikov M. V., Tarusin N. N., 2015, p.480).

Thus, problems of the population life quality, identification of production factors influence on level of living and health of the population, including, gender aspects of work, draw attention of researchers from the whole world.

Authors of this article suggest to consider a problem, relevant for Russians, of employment motivation and long (granting the right to guarantees, compensations and privileges) labor activity of the workers occupied on productions with harmful, dangerous and severe work conditions.

1. The labor code of the Russian Federation (Art. 209) gives definition of working conditions as the sets of the production environment factors and the labor process exerting impact on working capacity and health of the worker. The code also contains definitions of harmful and dangerous production factors. Harmful production factor which impact on the worker can lead to disease is defined. Dangerous - production factor which impact on the worker can lead to his injury (The labor code of the Russian Federation from 12/30/2001 N 197-FZ , date of the address - on January 12, 2015).

According to Rosstat for 2011, 3,5 million people have been engaged in harmful productions in the Russian Federation. At the same time at least 1 million from them - are women. The specific weight of number occupied at works with harmful and (or) dangerous working conditions in 2014 in general across the Russian Federation has made 39,7%. The greatest share of number occupied which has established at least one type of compensations (from 69,4% to 84,3%) in the extracting industries: metallurgical production; oil products and nuclear materials. These are mainly, industries where men are working. At the enterprises of textile and sewing production; on production of foodstuff; publishing and printing activities; on production of clothes, manufacture and dyeing of fur; on telecommunications agencies (traditionally, female) this indicator in 2014 has constituted from 11,1% to 34,1% ( Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation, 2015 ).

It is indicative that in 2014 on productions of the Russian Federation in general 16, 9% decrease in quantity of severe accidents is noted (9216 cases in 2013 and 7654 in 2014). Nevertheless, in a death toll (2223 people) the number of women has increased by 14 (in 2013 - 245, and in 2014 - 259 workers died) (Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation, 2015, p.132).

What forces women to work on HDHP (harmful, dangerous and heavy productions)? What factors are decisive in case of employment and long employment on HDHP? …

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